30 Tropical Rainforest Plants With Strange Adaptations: Names, Pics, Facts

Man hiking amid tropical rainforest plants and strange plants in the rainforest including amazon flowers, and jungle trees which build the rainforest ecosystem.

Tropical rainforest plants have evolved and adapted over the millennia to survive in an environment that is filled with both beauty and dangers.

But the diversity is astounding. There are more than 50% of plants and animals living in the rainforest where frequent rainfall makes it able for different plants to survive, some of which aren’t even classified yet.

Understanding more about tropical rainforest plants, with their strange adaptations, can help people realize the importance of protecting their regions which are so vital to the health of the planet.

This guide provides names, pictures and facts about these exotic plants, and how rebuilding the forests can help benefit the globe.

Plants in the Rainforest

Rainforests are typically designated in the South East Asia, Africa, Australia, South America, and India regions. Most of the plants that grow in the rainforest are mostly trees.

For any plant to grow, factors like climate and habitat must be considered, and the rainforest provides all that.1

This is why there are different plant species found in the rainforest and others are yet to be known.

What Are Some Plants in the Tropical Rainforest?

The tropical rainforest is a home for so many plant species that we cannot mention all. However, the most common one is the Acai Tree which has spread in the area covering almost 5 billion of the 390 billion trees found here.2

Below are some of the plants in the tropical rainforest and their pictures.

1. Carnivorous Plants

The rainforest soil has poor nutrients and this is one of the major reasons why carnivorous plants get their nutrients from the insects. The leaves of carnivorous plants are specially modified to trap and acquire substances from their prey through digestion and absorption.9

Closeup of a carnivorous plant species called Pitcher Plant showing green leaves and red pitcher body.

(Image: DEZALB19)

Australian Sundew, Cobra Lily, and Monkey Cup are just examples of the different tropical carnivorous plants that exist, but the most famous one is the Pitcher Plant (image above).

Angled shot of Giant Water Lilies showing large, waxy, and orbicular yellowish-green leaves on a body of water.

(Image: Steve Bidmead20)

2. Goliath Water Lilies

If you ever have a chance or you had a chance of visiting an Amazon River, you would have seen the Goliath Water Lilies,17 currently named after Queen Victoria of UK, Victoria Water Lilies.

They have flowers that smell like sweet pineapple especially in the evening when they open.

This tropical rainforest plant grows up to 4 to 6 feet in diameter and can carry the weight of a small child hence the name Goliath Water Lilies.2

3. The Biggest Rainforest Flower

Rafflesia arnoldii is one of the biggest flowers in the world followed by White Jasmine and Moon Orchid.10 This flower often smells like rotting meat hence the name ‘Corpse Flower.’

Top shot of Rafflesia arnoldii situated in a botanical garden in Japan showing 5 large and yellow-spotted red petals with dark brown edges.

(Image: Daderot21)

Unlike other flowers that use energy from the sun to make their own food, Rafflesia arnoldii gets its water and nutrients from a host, a vine, from the grape family.

This plant cannot grow in captivity and on top of that, it only contains male or female plants and this kind of pollination is rare.

Closeup of Passion Fruit plant showing flower with greenish-yellow center and purple-white petals and waxy green leaves.

(Image: Alex (alexleite)22)

4. Passion Fruit Flower

Passion Fruit is a vine species of Passion Flower that is native in Northern Argentina and Southern Brazil. This flower grows up to 15 to 20 feet and can be eaten or juiced as you desire.

Passion Fruits can tolerate dry conditions and are also resistant to pests. For protection against predators, passion fruit contain cyanide-based compounds.

5. Rubber Tree

This tree is called Rubber Tree because it is used to make homemade shoes, rubber balls, and even waterproof clothes. This plant is the most important in the rainforest because of its economical value.

Close-up of a young Rubber Tree plant in a white concrete wall background, showing its large, wet, green leaves and a plant support stick attached to its trunk.

When the tree is damaged, it produces latex which in turn is used to produce goods that are made from rubber example car tires.

Once upon a time, this plant was only found in the Amazon Rainforest, but now the plant has been taken to other places in the world and being provided with the conditions necessary for its growth.16

Types of Tropical Rainforest Plants

The humid and warm environment in the tropical rainforest has given room to over 200,000 species of plants to survive. All of the plants that you see in the rainforest work to provide their own food to survive and also provide animals with oxygen.

Sunlight does not reach the ground in the rainforest that is why there is a lot of competition on the ground for light. Some plants even have to climb on others in order to survive.

25% of western medicine today is believed to have come from the tropical rainforest. The plants treat a variety of illnesses including malaria, cancer, high blood pressure and more.3

Below are some types of the most beautiful and interesting plants in the tropical rainforest:

  1. Mahogany Tree
  2. Birds of Paradise
  3. Brazil Nut Trees
  4. Venus Fly Traps
  5. Passion Fruits

Tropical Rainforest Dominant Plants

There are different factors like moisture, temperature and ground water conditions that make a particular plant to be dominant over others. With that said, tall trees are obviously dominant over others because they receive the maximum amount of sunlight for their survival.

Ground-covering plants and large-leafed shrubs are the other dominant plants that make up the majority. However, biodiversity is crucial to the rainforest therefore different plant species live side by side for their survival.

Closeup of Orange Day Lily plant growing in Wild East Tennessee showing orange flowers with yellow center and green leaves.

All the dominant plants found in the tropical rainforest have their unique structural, and biological features of survival in the forest. You can find that some plants grow on the surface of other plants,11 while others depend on ‘aerial’ roots that mainly spread from canopies to acquire nutrients for survival.

The most prominent trees and shrubs in the tropical rainforest boast the largest number of species. On the other hand, the massive amount of cellulose is mainly found in the large trees and vines, making them the best option for sunlight absorption.

Below are some of the tropical rainforest dominant plants.

6. Strangler Fig

Strangler Figs are trees that can suffocate their host trees to their last breath, hence acquiring a different term, ‘‘Killer Trees.’’

While sunlight is a major requirement for trees to survive in the tropical rainforest, the Killer Trees have to compete with their hosts for the resources by strangling and blocking them from the rays of the sun. These trees also provide human beings and animals with edible fruits.

Eye level shot of Strangler Fig, Ficus mmacrophylla, showing multi-trunk with white bark and foliage with dark green leaves.

(Image: Stefan Schweihofer23)

Goliath Water Lilies: Strange Adaptation

The Goliath Water Lily boasts the most surprising techniques of survival in the tropical rainforest. Its extensive leaves have cuticles that help to keep the plant dry most of the time, thus attracting as much sunlight as possible for maximum food production.

When it comes to defense mechanisms, the trees boast thorns at the base of their large trees to scare their predators away.

Closeup of a Heliconia species situated in a forest in Columbia showing green stems and reddish-orange flower.

(Image: William Pomares24)

7. Heliconia Flower

If there is a plant that fears the cold in the tropical rainforest is the Heliconia Flower. Whenever it’s exposed to chilly weather, the tree freezes and eventually dies.

However during warm seasons, the Heliconia develops underground roots which later re-emerge after its ‘‘death’’ in the cold seasons. Like the Strangler Fig Tree, it also produces fruits that can be consumed by animals and human beings.

Passion Fruit Flower

Passion Fruit Trees mainly grow in warm climates and are hardly productive in cold ones. In fact, its leaves will likely fall off in the cold climates.

Passion fruits protect themselves from predators by their leaves mimicking the eggs of a butterfly.

Rubber Tree: Adaptation

When a rubber tree experiences any damage, latex will come out from the tree. This latex has very many uses including making shoes and car tires.

This plant sheds their leaves in early January and prepares itself to be a deciduous plant during drought.

Rubber Trees are mostly native in the Amazon. When damaged, the trees produce a milky white sap known as latex which is used to manufacture goods such as car tires and homemade shoes.

Currently, Rubber Trees can be found in several parts of the world, boasting different adaptability features in regards to their location. This is done to improve the lives of people in different places.

Layers of the Rainforest

Tropical rainforests have several growing zones for different plants.12 And each plant has its own structural and biological way to survive in this area.

Closeup of Orange Day Lily plant growing among grass in the wild in East Tennessee showing green leaves and orange flowers blooming at the end of flower stems.

Almost all of the plants live in an interdependent manner to survive. Factors like water, sunlight, and air circulation are distinct in the different layers of the rainforest.

Emergent Definition Layer

This is the top layer of the rainforest where trees grow as tall as 200 feet.

Trees that grow in the Emergent Definition Layer are dominant, as they are subjected to maximum amount of sunlight and wind. The leaves on this layer are usually small to adapt to retain moisture during the dry season or drought.

Examples of towering trees from the Emergent Layer include the Brazil Nut Tree. An endangered species that can live up to 1,000 years in undisturbed rainforest habitats.

Unlike any other species, Brazil Nut Tree and the Kapok Tree both shed their leaves once a year during the dry season.

Canopy Layer Plants

This is the second layer after the Emergent Layer. Trees in the canopy layer usually grow 60 to 100 feet tall.

Trees in this layer are densely packed with partial light from the sun. Trees adopted in the Canopy Layer produce glossy leaves with sharp ends that are able to repel water.

Unlike the Emergent Layer plants that do not depend on wind to scatter their seeds, but rather they simply enclose their seeds in the fruits.

Understory Layer Plants

The Understory Layer plants are found immediately below the Canopy Layer. The trees are barely 50 feet, therefore receiving little or no sunlight, making them humid for the largest part of their life.

However, their nearly 8 feet long leaves are their main survival feature as they collect the slightest amount of sunlight within their reach for survival.

Additionally, the Understory Layer trees usually produce substantial and conspicuous flowers for maximum pollination regardless of the minimum availability of sunlight.18 Seeds and fruits from several Understory Layer shrubs are fit for consumption by human beings and animals.

You will also likely find sapling trees in this layer, growing rapidly towards the sun.

Forest Floor

While it’s impossible for plants to survive on the Forest Floor due to the significant low amount of sunlight reaching the surface, the few inhabitants have adapted survival tactics thanks to their extensive leaves that hold a lot of sunlight whenever they can.

Some examples of plants found in this layer include wildflowers, moss, fern, and lichens.

Tropical Rainforest Plants Adaptations

Every plant in the rainforest has its unique ways of adapting to the environment for survival. All what matters is access to sunlight, acquisition of nutrients, and protection from predators to be fit for the tropical rainforest.6

Below are some of the plant adaptations in the tropical rainforest.

  1. Epiphytes are plants that grow on other plants for their support. They do not just climb on any plant, but look for plants that have rough barks for them to easily hold onto.
    Epiphytes grow higher up on the tree trunks in order to access light from the sun. They do not rely on groundwater, but gain their moisture from the humid atmosphere allowing them to live even higher in the forest canopy.
  2. Strangler Figs are the largest trees that grow taller and broader than other trees. Strangler Figs use low nitrate (an energetically expensive N source) therefore, conserving energy during Epiphytic growth.
    A reasonable amount of nitrate is stored in the fleshy taproot tubers of the Epiphytic Stranglers. They also provide food and shelter for a variety of animals and birds including pigeons and Diamond Pythons.
  3. Vines and lianas usually grow from the ground and use other plants for their support as they climb into the forest canopy in search of light from the sun. Large woody lianas are mainly found in the dry and subtropical rainforest, while vines are mostly found in the cool temperate and warm temperate rainforest.
    40% of the Canopy Layer can be made from their flowers and leaves as they grow very high in the branches.
  4. Bromeliads are species that mostly grow on the branches of the trees and some grow on the ground like pineapples. The stiff, long leaves that the Bromeliads have acts as a water channel that collects drops of water when it rains and also provides the plant with nutrients.
  5. The Tropical Palms growing on shallow, wet soil, have the characteristic of prop and stilt roots to help give support to the plant. The tree grows slowly but the roots grow 28 inches in a month.

Tropical Rainforest Plants Facts

  1. There are some tropical rainforest plants like Epiphytes in the rainforest that do not need soil to grow. They get their nutrients from the bird droppings or plant debris to survive.
  2. Leaves of the Bromeliad plants are used as a medium and can hold up to 9 liters of water.
  3. Prop and stilt roots have grown in some plants to provide them with support since the soil is of poor quality.
  4. Some tropical rainforest plants have been used as medicine for the longest time, and others like Rubber Plants have been used to make shoes and car tires.
  5. Plants like Strangler Figs start to grow in the canopy and eventually move downward to the soil.

Trees in the Tropical Rainforest

Evidently, trees are more precious to human beings than the vice versa. Besides oxygen, they provide us with water and significantly contribute to the humans daily diet.

But what do humans offer in return except for carbon dioxide?

Since there are more than 60,000 tree species in the tropical rainforest and so,13 it might be impossible to discuss all of them, but just a handful of the magnificent species that would be beneficial.

8. Custard Apple Tree

Custard Apple Tree not only grows in Central, South, and North America, but it has also found itself in other parts of the world. This plant grows for between 20 to 25 weeks and again bears fruits after 3 years making it possible to harvest two crops each year.

They are the first trees to bloom in spring before the other Apple Trees.

Closeup of Custard Apple Tree showing stems with dark green flowers and a ripe Custard Apple fruit.

(Image: Muhamad Farihin25)

Eye level shot of Kapok Tree in April, situated in university grounds showing Kapok Tree roots, trunk, and branches with less leaves.

9. Kapok Tree

Kapok Trees are mostly grown in Central and South America. Just like Rubber Trees, Kapok Trees also have economical values.

For example the soft fluffy seeds inside the pods are used to make pillows insulation and mattresses.

Its flower buds are used to make oils and candles. Not forgetting its health benefits, the flower of the Kapok Tree is used as medicine in the regions that they grow.14

Plant Adaptations in the Tropical Rainforest

Different plants have different adaptations. Some of the tropical rainforest plants adaptations include:

  1. Since soils in the rainforest are not strong enough to support plants like Mangrove Trees, they grow tilt roots to help them stay strong.
  2. Buttress Plants help to transport water and ensure there is stability in the gaseous exchange.
  3. The drip leaves in most of the plants in the rainforest helps the rain water to fall swiftly.
  4. Plants with broad leaves capture a lot of sunlight for the process of photosynthesis.

Tropical Rainforest Characteristics

Plants need to own some features for them to survive in the rainforest. Some tropical rainforest characteristics include:

  1. The process of exchanging organic and inorganic matter back to the environment is very fast. This helps soil to have the required nutrients for the plants.
  2. The climate in the tropical rainforest is very warm. It cannot go below 20 degrees Celsius neither can it go above 35 degrees Celsius.
  3. There are trees that grow tilt roots to help in their support, while others have shallow roots that enable them to hold nutrients in the soil.
  4. The daily rainfall in the tropical rainforest removes nutrients from the soil thus causing some plants to develop shallow roots to absorb nutrients.
  5. Different layers in the rainforest adapt differently to their environment.

Tropical Rainforest Plants Growing Zone

Tropical rainforests are mainly found in regions where there is maximum rainfall and very high temperatures. The climatic condition in the rainforest enables different kinds of tropical rainforest plants and trees to grow for the survival of animals.

Tropical rainforest does not require much land and therefore, it is located in the south of the equator.

What Is a Biome?

A biome refers to an area where different plants and animals share similar conditions of life. Scientists used factors such as soil, light, and temperature to determine a biome of specific species.

The main forms of biomes in the ecosystem include Aquatic, Forest Tundra, and Grassland. That’s the most applicable response to the question, “What is a biome?”

Tropical Rainforest Biome Plants

Trees make up the largest part of the tropical rainforest, existing in different types and features. Trees are the major plants that are mostly found in the tropical rainforest.

You can find trees with thin leaves, broad ones, and others that can survive close to 350 years. Below are some of the tropical rainforest biome plants.

10. Bengal Bamboo

The Bengal Bamboo grows more rapidly than other tropical rainforest plants. Rumors have it that the Bengal Bamboo Tree was traditionally used by Japanese soldiers to instill torture during the Second World War.

While the Bengal Bamboo is primarily found in South Asia, some of its species have been shifted to other parts of the planet and adopted successfully to the surroundings.

Eye-level shot of Mangrove Trees in Hirugi, Japan showing Asiatic Mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata) Trees dense foliage and roots during a low tide.

(Image: ababhastopographer27)

11. Mangrove Trees

Mangrove Trees are found along the deltas, protecting the coastline from the rainforest, and any possible adverse weather conditions. The trees are known to survive in the extremely salt water, that’s why you will find a number of them across the ocean.

12. Orchids

Orchids make up the greatest family of plants in the rainforest, coming in different colors such as white and pink. They are mostly found in Central and South America, thanks to the favorable conditions for their growth in such regions.

Closeup of Moth Orchids showing dark green leaves and white blossoms with pink center.

(Image: Rick Wunderle28)

Where Is the Amazon Rainforest?

The Amazon Rainforest is a home for different plants, animals and even human beings whose population is approximately 49 million.

The Amazonian Rainforest covers an area of about 6.7 million square kilometers. The Amazon rainforest is in the land of South America.4

Amazon Plants

The Amazon Rainforest boasts the greatest contribution to the environment in the globe with more than 60,000 species, while others are still under discovery. Here are some of the Amazon plants alongside their pictures.

13. Murumuru Palm Tree

Some people across the rainforest consume the Murumuru Palm Tree, and embrace it as a staple meal. The tree is processed into butter filled with fatty acids, and omega that are highly beneficial to the human body.

Murumuru Palm Tree is also a source of hope to people battling hair and skin issues.

Wide shot of Murumuru Palm Tree situated in murky water in a forest showing pinnate fronds covered in mud.

(Image: Jens-Christian Svenning33)

Closeup of Monkey Brush Vine showing thin stems with green leaves and reddish-orange flowers.

(Image: Dinesh Valke30)

14. Monkey Brush Vine

This plant was named Monkey Brush Vine because when it blossoms, the tree opens up into yellow and red flowers that resemble monkeys. This plant is the most exotic plant in the rainforest.7

It’s also known to provide adequate calmness, especially to people who like to practice Yoga and meditate.

15. Coffee Plant

As the term suggests, the Coffee plant, which is mainly found between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, is as essential as the beverage is in people’s lives. It doesn’t just grow on itself, but acquires shade from other plants for growth and survival.

Closeup of Coffee plant showing stems with clusters of red, orange, and green skin Coffee plant fruits.

(Image: Daniel Ramirez31)

Amazon Flowers

You can find plenty of flowering plants across the Amazon forest, including:

16. Brazilian Pepper

If you want to know a flowering plant,15 then you should check if a plant has green leaves and bright red berries. Insects get their nectar from the Brazilian Pepper.

Flowers of this beautiful plant only blossoms in the months of September and October.

Wide shot of Brazilian Pepper Tree situated next to a dirt pathway showing dense foliage and short trunk with the sky on the background.

(Image: Themium32)

Closeup of Dutch Amaryllis plant showing flower stems with orange petals and yellow center.

(Image: sandid26)

17. Dutch Amaryllis

The Dutch Amaryllis flower plant produces an assortment of colors from white to red, orange, and yellow. The plant can last close to three weeks if taken good care of, and whenever the flowers are cut well, they can re-bloom to be as beautiful as the previous ones.

The Dutch Amaryllis can be mainly found in the United States of America and Southern Africa.


As highlighted earlier, Orchids make up the most prominent plant species to ever exist.

The plants have extensive roots that put them ahead of others when struggling for acquisition of water, and also depend on other plants for pollination.

Tropical Rainforest Trees

How can you call a forest a tropical forest if it does not have the strangest trees no one has ever seen? This area is mostly dominated by trees than any other plant.5

Some tropical rainforest plants include:

  1. Kauri Trees
  2. Ceiba Trees
  3. Strangler Figs

Tropical Rainforest Plants Leaves

Most tropical rainforest plants have green leaves with a waxy coating above them. The thick, pointed drop tips in such leaves allows sufficient flow of rainfall to the rest of the plant.

Furthermore, different tropical rainforest plant leaves have a variety of environmental adaptability features. Here are some of the tropical rainforest plants’ leaves.6

  1. Lianas leaves
  2. Algae leaves
  3. Venus Fly Traps leaves

Tropical Rainforest Flowers

The Passion Fruit Flower is the most common flower in the tropical rainforest, dominating the largest part of the land. It boasts above 500 most common flowering plants in the environment.

Other types of tropical rainforest plants found in the tropical rainforest are the Haleconia and Orchids.7

Tropical Rainforest Food Web

The ecosystem comprises all food chains where every animal or plant depends on the other for survival. There are high possibilities that nutrients and energy are being moved across the ecosystem.

Tropical rainforest food web is made up of the producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and the tertiary consumers.

Rainforest Ecosystem

Ecosystem refers to a community of biotic and abiotic organisms that live together and interact with one another. The Rainforest ecosystem depends on moisture, is covered with canopy trees, and barely experiences wildfires.

Tropical and Temperate rainforests are the two major classifications of rainforests.

Tropical Trees

While there are plenty of Tropical trees in the rainforest, the Palm tree is the most common, existing in different kinds. The trees grow in various habitats such as the coast, rainforests, and deserts.

You can also find Pine, Sycamore, and Maple trees in the tropical rainforests.

Tropical Dry Forest

The first thing that should click your mind whenever you hear of Dry forests is limited rainfall and deciduous plants. Tropical Dry forest can survive with little or no rainfall for 4-6 months.

Such conditions make the plants go beyond their ways to adapt and survive in the harsh environment.

18. Rain Tree

This plant is so called the Rain Tree, because it kind of predicts the rainy weather by folding up their plant leaves before its appearance. This plant has many specimens but the largest known is the Chamchuri.

Rain trees are planted as shades for the coffee trees.

Angled-shot of Rain tree showing foliage with varying shades of green leaves and long branches with the sky on the background.

(Image: LATUPEIRISSA (pisauikan)29)

Types of Trees

There are so many types of trees in the tropical rainforest. Almost 70,000 tree species and others are yet to be discovered.

The most common trees are the Pine, Beech, and Oak Trees. We need tree plants more than they need us, therefore there is a need to take good care of them.

Jungle Trees

A jungle is an area that has overgrown mass of vegetation over a large area of land. The most common jungle trees are the Brazil Nut, Kapok, and Annatto.

Jungle forests help in maintaining the temperature and the oxygen level in the atmosphere.

Biggest Jungles in the World

Amazon is the biggest jungle in the world with half the plants found in the world. The second biggest is the Congo Forest found in Africa with 500 million acres of land.

Lastly is the New Guinea Rainforest with approximately 280,000 square kilometers of land.

Tropical Rainforest Animals

Tropical Rainforest animals are important to plants as much as plants are important to animals. Animals like insects help plants in pollination.

Very many animals live here but the most common is the jaguar. Some animals that live here have developed camouflage to hide from their predators while others have different features that also help them to survive.8

Hopefully, you now know the different plants in the rainforest, know some facts about them and the different characteristics that they own. As much as animals are of help to plants by helping them in pollination, plants are also important as they help stabilize the gaseous exchange and also provide food and water for the animals.

When we protect our environment, the environment also protects us. But when we destroy the tropical rainforest plants, we destroy ourselves.

Frequently Asked Questions About Tropical Rainforest Plants

What Is the Most Common Tree in the Tropical Rainforest?

The most common trees in the Tropical Rainforests include the Palm Tree and the Passion Fruit.

What Is a Biome?

Biome is an area classified according to the species that live in that location.

What Are Jungle Plants?

Jungle plants are plants that grow in the rainforests on top of trees, and they have vines that spread to other trees, forming a network of vines on top of the forest below them.


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19Photo by DEZALB. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/nepenthe-epiphyte-carnivorous-plant-1686965/>

20Photo by Steve Bidmead. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/lily-water-giant-water-lily-365619/>

21Rafflesia arnoldii Photo by Daderot / CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication. Resized and Changed Format. From Wikimedia Commons <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rafflesia_arnoldii_-_Food_and_Agriculture_Museum_-_Setagaya,_Tokyo,_Japan_-_DSC09906.jpg>

22Photo by Alex (alexleite). Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/flower-passion-fruit-branch-1024224/>

23Photo by Stefan Schweihofer. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/ficus-macrophylla-plant-gigantic-572838/>

24Photo by William Pomares. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/heliconia-flower-red-natural-plant-4801363/>

25Photo by Muhamad Farihin. Unsplash. Retrieved from <https://unsplash.com/photos/UxnmoDayADM>

26Photo by sandid. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/flowers-blooms-hippeastrum-orange-1095770/>

27Mangrove Trees in Hirugi Photo by ababhastopographer / Public Domain Mark 1.0. Resized and Changed Format. From Flickr <https://flic.kr/p/eWrdnr>

28Photo by Rick Wunderle. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/flowers-moth-orchids-white-flowers-7985587/>

29Photo by LATUPEIRISSA (pisauikan). Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/samanea-saman-rain-tree-tree-canopy-4916867/>

30Monkey’s brush (372222113) Photo by Dinesh Valke / Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Flickr <https://flic.kr/p/yTJED>

31Photo by Daniel Ramirez. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/coffee-grains-mature-farming-plant-1474601/>

32Aroeira-vermelha em Taubaté, SP Photo by Themium / Public Domain Mark 1.0. Resized and Changed Format. From Wikimedia Commons <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aroeira-vermelha_em_Taubat%C3%A9,_SP.jpg>

33Astrocaryum murumuru Photo by Jens-Christian Svenning / Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Resized and Changed Format. From iNaturalist <https://www.inaturalist.org/photos/74373909?size=large>