How To Identify Sumac Tree: Growing Staghorn, Smooth, Poison Sumac

Image of a flowering Sumac tree in a green oval for answering how to identify sumac trees, poison sumac, staghorn sumac, and more.

The Sumac Tree is a species of flowering tree and shrub that is renowned for its strikingly beautiful crimson hues of foliage. You may have seen a Sumac Tree and marveled at its colorful prominence without realizing it was a Sumac.

The Sumac Tree is a very popular tree used by homeowners for aesthetic and landscaping purposes.

The Sumac Tree is an aesthetically magnificent plant that can offer growers a variety of benefits,7 not just landscaping.

Sumac Trees, shrubs, flowers, and the drupes they fruit can be used for purposes including but not limited to:

  • Erosion control
  • Medicine
  • Tanning and dying agents
  • Producing tangy drinks (Sumac-ade)
  • Spice
  • Bird attraction and watching hobbies
  • Lumber

However, there are just as many people who have never heard of the Sumac Tree. And there are many more who mistakenly associate the name with a related but different species of Sumac known for causing rashes.

This guide outlines the difference and shows how to identify a Sumac tree.

Sumac Tree (Drawbacks and Mistaken Identity)

One drawback of the Sumac Tree that you should be aware of is that once you plant them, they are incredibly difficult to get rid of. While the roots of the Sumac Tree might go down a foot or two, the tree can develop an aggressively expanding and widening root network.1

Additionally, there are many people who mistakenly confuse the Sumac Tree with Poison Sumac,8 Although both plants are in the same scientific classification family, they are not the same plant. Each plant has very different and distinct identifying features.

You will learn all about these facts and more in this comprehensive guide to the Sumac Tree.

Sumac Tree Basics

The Sumac Tree is a type of flowering shrub and tree that grow to heights between three and 33 feet tall. The Sumac Tree grows a cluster of fern-like leaves with green or whitish flowers.

In the autumn, the Sumac Tree’s flowers changed into dazzling hues ranging from crimson red, orange, deep yellow, and purple. The Sumac Tree also blooms a red-colored drupe that is edible and can be used for a variety of culinary dishes.

The drupes of the Sumac Tree look like tiny fuzzy berries. And it grows in conical-shaped and densely packed cluster bunches on its branches.



Sumac tree in an oval frame on green background
  • Family: Anacardiaceae
  • Genus: Rhus
  • Leaf: Aesthetically simple, pinnate, or trifoliate fern-like whitish or green leaves.
  • Bark: Rust brown and dark-hued.
  • Seed: Soft, feathery, and fuzzy red seeds.
  • Blossoms: Spring
  • Native Habitat: Middle East
  • Height: 3 to 33 feet
  • Canopy: 25 feet
  • Type: A Sumac Tree can be deciduous, evergreen, and even dioecious.9 (Deciduous leaves fall from plants during winter or times of stress. Evergreen plants keep their leaves all year round. Dioecious plants are either female or male but do not feature both sexes in the same plant or tree.)

The Sumac Tree is a flowering shrub and tree that grows to medium height. There are about 150 distinct species of Sumac Tree globally.10

Depending on who you ask, there are about 14 to 35 species of Sumac Tree native to North America.

Sumac is native to the Middle East. But its dozens of distinct species can now be found in continents like North America, Asia, and Africa. Most Sumac Tree species grow in the east, northeastern, and southeastern portions of North America as well as in sections of the Midwest.

Its scientific classification is in the Rhus genus and it is in the Anacardiaceae.

The Sumac Tree is related to several other drupes, plants, nuts, and vegetables related to the Anacardiaceae family, including:

  • Peruvian Peppers
  • Mangos
  • Cashews
  • Pistachios
  • Poison Oak
  • Poison Sumac
  • Poison Ivy

The poisonous species of Sumac, which include Poison Sumac, contain and excrete a toxic resin known as urushiol.11 Urushiol is a toxic, oily, and sticky resin that causes caustic skin inflammation, horribly itchy rashes, and allergic reactions if it comes into contact with human skin.

If one were to burn Poison Sumac, Oak, or Ivy, and then inhale the smoke, these adverse and allergic reactions could happen internally.

However, all non-poisonous forms of the Sumac Tree are either urushiol-free or contain such negligible amounts that they are safe to handle.2 The differences between traditional, Non-poisonous Sumac and Poison Sumac are strikingly obvious.

Also, each plant natively grows in different areas, so it is easy to avoid Poison sumac if you know what to look for. (More on this later.)

The Sumac Tree is well-known for its resplendent and beautifully-hued autumn foliage. Some of the famous and colorful autumn tree landscapes in the northern and Northeastern United States that you may be familiar with are probably Sumac Trees.

Sumac can grow to become tall shrubs of three feet in height or a little more or trees of about 33 feet in height. Homeowners, landowners, and landscapers use the Sumac Tree for landscaping aesthetics and erosion control.

Sumac is also grown for attractive and eye-catching hedges, privacy screens, and demarcating borders. Sumac can grow in dry and very poor soil conditions but it grows optimally under full sun exposure and well-draining or irrigated soil.

How To Identify Sumac Tree (Sumac Tree Identification)

The average Sumac plant grows by developing suckers, or tiny root-like appendages that extend out from the root.

Even though the Sumac Tree does not have deep roots its root system can aggressively expand and spread out like the ripples from the center of a pond after a pebble is thrown in.

Sumac tree identification chart showing Sumac tree, leaf, flowers, bark, and seeds in a round frame on green background

The Sumac Tree can grow as thickets and shrubs with expansive root systems that are hard to remove. As a tree, the typical Sumac Tree trunk stem can be a foot or longer in diameter.

A Sumac shrub or thicket can have its branch stem system twist around each other to create one twisted trunk.

The twigs and branches of the Sumac Tree are usually red, fuzzy, and relatively thick at almost an inch thickness in diameter for larger trees. The bark of the Sumac Tree is typically rust red-colored or some darker-hued color.

Types of Sumac Tree

As previously mentioned, there are anywhere between a dozen to about three dozen species of Sumac Tree in the United States. There are numerous varieties of Sumac Tree that could suit your aesthetic landscaping, or other needs if you are considering planting it.

Here are a few species of Sumac to consider:

Staghorn Sumac Tree

The Staghorn Sumac Tree is the largest species of Sumac in North America.12 It’s basically the generic form of the Sumac Tree – most people wouldn’t know it, Sumac, if they saw it.

Image of Staghorn Sumac that shows fresh green leaves.

(Image: Bernell15)

And staghorn is probably the only form of Sumac that those familiar with it would probably recognize.

Its scientific classification is Rhus typhina. This species of Sumac is specifically dioecious – that means that each plant is either male or female but never a mix of both gender on one plant.

The branches and twigs of the Staghorn Sumac Tree are covered in velvet-like and fuzzy hair-like growths. Staghorn Sumac is sometimes called “Velvet Sumac,” because its red-colored and velvet-like branches kind of resemble deer antlers.

This species of Sumac should be planted in areas in need of shrubbery or privacy screen cover. You may need to prune it regularly to prevent it from aggressively over-growing.

Staghorn Sumac is native to the Eastern region of North America. It grows optimally in USDA Hardiness zones 3 to 9.

Its maximum height ranges from about 15 to 25 feet.

Smooth Sumac Tree

Smooth Sumac is listed under the scientific classification name Rhus glabra. It is similar to Staghorn Sumac in many ways – the main difference between the two plants is that Smooth Sumac does not have fuzzy or velvety skin on its branches or bark.

Image of Smooth Sumac flower and leaves.

(Image: Velocicaptor16)

As its name implies, Smooth Sumac is smooth to the touch. Smooth Sumac is also known as:

  • Scarlet Sumac
  • Red Sumac
  • Western Sumac
  • Common Sumac

Its foliage can turn into vibrant hues of red and reddish-orange in the autumn months. Smooth Sumac is usually planted as a form of erosion control.

It can grow aggressively out of control and is not recommended for planting in residential areas.

It is usually found in the Northeastern United States and in the southern provinces of Canada. Smooth Sumac is commonly found in wood clearings and prairie-like rural areas.

Smooth Sumac can grow up to 15 feet tall.

It can be planted in USDA Hardiness Zones 3 to 9.

Littleleaf Sumac

Littleleaf Sumac is also known as Desert Sumac. It is native to the Southwestern United States and northern and central regions of Mexico.

Close up image of Littleleaf Sumac tree with blurred background.

(Image: JerryFriedman17)

Its scientific classification name is Rhus microphylla.

The leaves of the Littleleaf Sumac are smaller than the Staghorn Sumac. Its leaves are smaller, leathery to the touch, and bloom in the autumn with white flowers.

Its fruiting drupes are orange-reddish in color.

The Littleleaf Sumac can be grown as a vibrantly colorful hedge privacy screen. It is prized as a plant that can be used to attract and protect dwindling numbers of bee species.

Littleleaf sumac grows optimally in USDA Hardiness Zones 6 through 10 and can reach a maximum height of about six feet.

Lemonade Berry Sumac

Its scientific name is Rhus integrifolia. Lemonade berry sumac differentiates itself from other species of Sumac by having simple leaves that are not pinnate or trifoliate. Its leaves are also leathery and waxy to the touch.

As the name suggests, lemonade berry Sumac fruits are red drupes that have a savory and tarty flavor that can be used to make sweetened beverages. This plant grows well in poor soil, is good for use as erosion control, and grows a lot slower than most species of Sumac.

So, there is less chance that this species will aggressively grow out of control once you plant it.

Lemonade berry Sumac is native to Southern California and Baja Mexico. It grows optimally in USDA Hardiness Zones 8 through 10 and can grow up to 10 feet tall.

Sugar Sumac

Its scientific classification is Rhus ovata. Its name is ancient – Indigenous Americans reportedly made sweet drinks with sugar Sumac drupes centuries ago.

Full image of Sugar Sumac tree in the forest.

(Image: Department of Horticulture18)

Sugar Sumac is optimal for use as a decorative hedge or privacy screen. It can also be used as an erosion control method.

Some parts of the Sugar Sumac Tree could contain appreciable amounts of urushiol, the oily resin that can cause caustic inflammation, itchiness, and allergic reactions in those ultra-sensitive to the substance.

Sugar Sumac is native to Southern California, Arizona, and Baja California. It grows in USDA Hardiness Zones 7 through 11 and can grow up to 10 feet tall.

Elm Leaved Sumach

Elm Leaved Sumach is an ancient version of the species. It is also known as Sicilian sumac and Tanner’s sumac.

In ancient times, Elm Leaved Sumach was used to create dyes and coloring to tan and dye leather and clothes.

The dried and grounded drupes and seeds of the Elm Leaved Sumach were also used to make spices for cooking. This plant is native to Southern Europe.

It can be optimally grown in USDA Hardiness Zones 8 through 11 and can grow up to 10 feet tall.

Fragrant Sumac

Fragrant Sumac is sometimes called Sweet-scented Sumac. Its scientific classification is Rhus aromatica.13

Close up image of Fragrant Sumac leaves with blurred background.

(Image: Pam Morgan19)

After crushing the twigs and leaves of this plant, it emits a pleasantly fragrant aroma. Along with being prized for its aromatic qualities, Fragrant Sumac is also used as erosion control on vulnerable banks and hills.

Fragrant Sumac is native to Eastern North America and can be optimally grown in USDA Hardiness Zones 3 through 9. It can grow to be about 9 feet tall.

Sumac Tree Leaves

Sumac Tree leaves are pinnate, or they cluster in groupings around a Sumac twig or branch like a fern leaf. Each Sumac twig or branch can hold 11 to 31 leaves.

Sumac leaves usually have soft but serrated edges. Before the blooming season, the Sumac Tree leaves green on its top side and a slightly paler shade of green on the underside.

Sumac Tree Flower

The blooming and colorful flowers of the Sumac tree are attention-stopping – they can be turned into shades of crimson red, yellow, orange, brownish-red, and even purple.

Sumac Tree Seeds

The Sumac Tree fruit is a fleshy fruit that covers a seed. Even though Sumac fruit looks like berries, it’s technically called a drupe, like a mango.

Sumac tree drupes are dramatically red, orange, or brownish-red, covered in fuzzy hairs. Sumac tree drupes contain a sole and very thin seed.

Sumac tree propagates their existence via aggressive sucker growth, also known as basal shoots, which expands their underground root system while proliferating their shrub and thicket growth above ground. Additionally, when birds and other animals eat Sumac Tree drupes, they pass the seeds through their digestive system.

The animal droppings, which enclosed the Sumac seed from the drupe, start seed germination and new Sumac plant growth.

Is Sumac Tree Poisonous?

The Sumac Tree is not considered to be poisonous. All non-poisonous species of the Sumac Tree can be handled without fear of developing an itchy rash.

However, science does not generally agree that non-poisonous species of Sumac contain 0% urushiol, the caustic substance that causes the rash.

Since the Sumac Tree is part of the Anacardiaceae family, which is related to Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac, non-poisonous varieties of the species may contain negligible or virtually non-existent amounts of urushiol that negate its effects.

As previously mentioned, Sugar Sumac might have just enough minute quantities of urushiol in certain parts of the plant to cause inflammatory and allergic reactions in those sensitive to urushiol, even though the plant is generally considered non-poisonous.

You should not be too worried – practically every variety of Sumac is non-poisonous and you do not have to worry about such effects.

Want proof? Do you love cashews?

Every cashew that you have ever eaten contains detectable and trace amounts of urushiol in them.3 Cashews grow inside shells at the end of a heart-shaped drupe.

Extensive processing and steaming must be performed on cashews to remove and reduce as much urushiol as possible from them.

Trace but negligible amounts of urushiol still remain on cashews even after extensive processing, steaming, and cleaning. Still, most people can eat them safely.

(Cashews are expensive because of the extensive processing required to make them safe.)

The Sumac Tree does not require such processing and is considered safe. However, the same cannot be said for its genus family relative, Poison Sumac.

Poison Sumac

Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac are related to the Sumac Tree via the Anacardiaceae family affiliation.

But unlike the Sumac Tree, Poison Sumac is extremely poisonous and toxic to human skin when touched.

Close up image of Poison Sumac leaves during sunset.

(Image: Joshua Mayer20)

Additionally, one should not inhale the smoke emanating from burned poison sumac wood.

Poison Sumac and its related poisonous tree species contain and exude a substance that is a mixture of toxic oils and organic compounds called urushiol. Urushiol is a cytotoxic oil – “cytotoxic,” is a fancy scientific term meaning that it is a substance that aggressively attacks the cells of the human body.

Once you touch Poison Sumac, the urushiol oils on it will become absorbed through your skin within minutes. An inflammatory reaction will result.

Your skin will become red-colored, inflamed, blistered, aggressively itchy, and rash.

The parts of your skin exposed to Poison Sumac may actually feel like it’s burning. Some people develop severe allergic reactions when they come into contact with urushiol via Poison Sumac.

Poison Sumac exposure is not contagious. You can only spread it by transferring the leftover urushiol oil on exposed skin or clothing.

Unfortunately, there is no cure or specific treatment for Poison Sumac exposure.14 After removing exposed clothing, you could bathe in an oatmeal bath and use degreasing soap products, like dishwashing liquid, to wash the exposed areas.

A doctor may be able to prescribe steroids to help your body fight the reaction, but such treatments are not a cure. Using steroids or soothing salves will only fight the symptoms of Poison Sumac exposure.

Depending on the level of exposure, the adverse effects of Poison Sumac exposure could last for days or even a few weeks.

In other words, once you’re exposed to Poison Sumac, you will have to ride out the effects until they subside and disappear. But there are several ways that you can be proactive and learn how to recognize the tell-tale differences between Sumac and Poison Sumac.

Sumac vs. Poison Sumac

There are several ways that you can instantly recognize Poison Sumac vs Sumac.

The Sumac Tree grows in the woods and rural areas of highland regions. Poison Sumac grows in wetlands and swampy areas.

You may unmistakably find poison sumac growing at the edge of a pond or in a humid wetland.

A Sumac Tree requires well-drained soil conditions to thrive. Poison Sumac is a shrub or short tree, about 10 feet tall, that survives by growing in standing water or directly in a pond.

Most trees will die of rot in similar conditions.

The branches of the Sumac Tree are red-colored and covered in fine and fuzzy hairs, almost like the antlers of a deer. The branches of Poison Sumac are very fine and smooth and don’t feature any fuzzy hairs.

Pay attention to the leaves, the leaves of the Sumac Tree are fine-toothed and serrated in appearance. The leaves of Poison Sumac are smooth and almost resemble a teardrop and feature no serrated edges.

The leaves of the Sumac Tree are green. The leaves of Toison Sumac may turn orange or reddish in autumn but they turn white in the winter.

Look at the drupes. The drupes of the Sumac Tree look like crimson red and fuzz-covered berries.

These drupes are densely packed in bunches on Sumac Tree branches.

The drupes of Poison Sumac are white-colored – which is a dead giveaway. The white-colored drupes and flowers were growly loosely and spread out on branches and are never densely packed on the branch.

Is Staghorn Sumac Poisonous?

No. You can handle and touch Staghorn Sumac without any fear of an inflammatory reaction on your skin.

Best Growing Conditions for Sumac Tree

You should plant a Sumac Tree in well-drained soil. It is a hardy plant, so it can thrive in less-than-ideal soil conditions.

While not an optimal choice, you could plant Sumac in coarse rocky soil and even acidic soil.

What Are the Best Planting Tips for Sumac Tree?

Sumac Tree plants are notorious for the invasive and aggressive suckers, or basal shoots that grow up from the roots. The overgrowth of these suckers is what makes the plant an invasive weed to some critics.

Add mulching to the soil after planting your Sumac Tree. The mulching will hamper sucker growth and help the plant retain some moisture in between watering.

How Far Apart To Plant Sumac Tree?

Unless you are planting a privacy screen hedge, you should plant Sumac Trees at least 15 feet apart or more. You must remember that the Sumac aggressively spreads out and can become invasive as it grows.

And as Sumac grows, the distance between the plants shortens – the farther you space them apart at planting time, the better.

What Is the Best Method for Growing Sumac Tree From a Seed?

You need the patience to grow a Sumac Tree from seed.

To jumpstart the germination process, you must soak the seeds in water for 24 hours, place the seeds in a sandy soil mixture, place them in a bag, and then put them in a refrigerator for a month.

This process mimics winter exposure and just starts germination.

Natural Pest Control for Sumac Tree

You can spray off your plant if you see pest eggs on them. You can also remove such eggs if you see them.

Your best option would be to use organic insecticide.

How Much Carbon Does Sumac Tree Sequester?

The Sumac Tree is technically a shrub. Shrubs sequester more carbon than most plant species.

Hundreds of shrubs planted over 2.4 acres, or one hectare, could sequester over 15 tons of carbon annually.6

Sumac Tree Facts

Here are some amazing facts about the Sumac Tree that you may not be aware of.

“Sumac,” is an ancient Middle Eastern word that may have been first coined over 2,000 years ago.4 No one knows the exact origin of the words or where it comes from.

Some experts believe that the word is Arabic or Syrian in origin.

Some experts believe that Sumac is an ancient Aramaic word, which is now considered a virtually extinct language that is only spoken by a few ethnic groups in the Middle East today. “Sumac,” may mean “red,” or, ”deep red.”

Sumac has been used as a tanning and dye ingredient for leather and clothes for thousands of years.

Ground Sumac drupes can be ground up as a culinary spice. Ground Sumac roots can be used to create tea.

Sumac drupes are edible and have a lemony tang-like taste to them. Grind up Sumac drupes, put them in a cheesecloth like a teabag, and then steep them in a pitcher of water.

Add some honey or sugar to taste and you can make your own Sumacade drink.5

Planting Sumac is great for erosion control, aesthetically beautiful privacy screens, and making lemony drinks, and drinks. And it is not the same plant as Poison Sumac, even though it is related to it.

Read More About Trees:

  • Some trees are toxic or feature spiky thorns. Here are the 15 most dangerous trees in the world
  • You can identify a tree by location, bark type, seeds, and more. Find out how to identify 28 types of trees
  • Cashews contain a toxic oil that causes skin inflammation. Learn how to safely grow a cashew tree
  • There is more than one kind of white flowering plant. Use this white flowering trees identification guide to learn how to spot them

The Sumac Tree is safe to plant and could make your landscape the most vividly vibrant one in your neighborhood.

Frequently Asked Questions About Sumac Tree

Is There a Way To Show How Long It Takes To Grow Sumac Tree?

A Sumac Tree can grow as much as a foot or two annually.

What Is the Optimal Sumac Tree Growing Zone?

The common Sumac Tree grows optimally in USDA Hardiness Zones 3 through 9.

What Are the Best Growing Zones for Sumac Tree? Where To Grow It?

Besides USDA HArdiness Zones 3 through 9, the bets places to grow a sumac tree is in the Eastern and Northeastern parts of North America.

Where Can I Learn When To Plant Sumac Tree for the Best Yield?

The best time to plant Sumac is in the spring.

What Are the Watering Needs for Sumac Tree Plants?

You can water a Sumac Tree once weekly – just make sure you don’t overwater it.

How Much Sunlight Does Sumac Tree Need Each Day?

The sumac tree should be planted under full exposure of the sun. Like most plants, it should have four to six hours of full sunlight daily.

What Is the Best Method for Growing a Sumac Tree From a Cutting?

Dip the end of the cutting in a root hormone, plant it in well draining soil, and water it once or twice a week.

What Is the Best Method for Growing a Sumac Tree From a Seedling?

The easiest method for growing a sumac tree is from a cutting. You may need to grow a seedling in potted soil for awhile before you plant.

What Are the Best Companion Plants for Growing Sumac Tree?

Here are some great companion plants that you can plant alongside a sumac tree:

  • Ninebark
  • Redbud
  • Pussy WIllow
  • Red Cedar

What Is a Culinary Sumac Substitute?

You can substitute lemon pepper for sumac spice if you can’t find it.

What Is Another Sumac Alternative?

Za’atar spice.

Are Poison Sumac Berries Useful for Anything?

No. They are toxic and should never be eaten.

What Are the Common Pests of the Sumac Tree?

The most common pests of the Sumac Tree are caterpillars and mealybugs.

Any Available Sumac Tree Disease Prevention Tips?

Sumac Trees are hardy and can grow in conditions that other trees cannot. Sumac trees are not vulnerable to most tree diseases.

How To Stop Sumac Tree Disease?

Don’t overwater your Sumac Tree. You could cause the root rot you want to avoid. If you need to prune or cut roots, make sure that your cutting tools are clean.


1Lindsey, C. (2023). Can You Take a Cutting From A Sumac Tree. GardeNew. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

2Alonso, N. (2014, February 5). Can Non-Poison Sumac Trees Cause a Rash? Hearst Newspapers. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

3Healthline. (2020, November 19). Are Cashews Poisonous? All You Need to Know. Healthline Website. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

4Taylor, P. (2022, August 2). What Is Sumac? thespruceeats. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

5PBS. (2023). Sumac Lemonade. PBS. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

6Matthews, A. (2020, February 4). How shrubs can help solve climate change. BBC. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

7Wikipedia. (2023, April 22). Sumac. Wikipedia. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

8Wikipedia. (2022, November 27). Toxicodendron vernix. Wikipedia. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

9Wikipedia. (2023, `May 1). Dioecy. Wikipedia. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

10Taylor, D. (2023). Plant of the Week. U.S. FOREST SERVICE. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

11Wikipedia. (2023, February 27). Urushiol. Wikipedia. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

12NC STATE EXTENSION. (2023). Rhus typhina. North Carolina Extension Gardener. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

13NC STATE EXTENSION. (2023). Rhus aromatica. North Carolina Extension Gardener. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

14National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (2022, May 24). Poisonous Plants: Symptoms and First Aid. CDC. Retrieved May 3, 2023, from <>

15Bernell. Pixabay. Retrieved from <>

16Velocicaptor. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from <>

17JerryFriedman. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from <>

18Department of Horticulture. Oregon State University. Retrieved from <>

19Pam Morgan. Flickr. Retrieved from <>

20Joshua Mayer. Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0). Changed Format, Resized. Flickr. Retrieved from <>

21Featured Image: Quebec, canada, plant, and outdoors in Canada Photo by charliewarl. (2022, November 8) / Unsplash License. Cropped and remixed with text, shape, and background elements. Unsplash. Retrieved February 6, 2024, from <>

22Species Information Image: A sumac plant. Photo by Ted Balmer. (2023, September 24) / Unsplash License. Cropped and remixed with text, shape, and background elements. Unsplash. Retrieved January 19, 2024, from <>