Pohutukawa Tree: Growing New Zealand Christmas Tree, Planting Tips (Guide)

Woman touching a pohutukawa tree flower wonders how to identify pohutukawa tree (new zealand christmas tree) and how to grow and cultivate pohutukawa trees (growing zones)

The Pohutukawa tree is essentially a shrub that can grow to the height of a traditional tree.

And, this tall-growing, multi-trunked tree with fibrous aerial roots, Weeping Willow-type leaves, and branches is world famous for its festive red, orange, white, and yellow colored stamen clusters.

Sometimes this tree will grow densely fibrous crimson-colored rootlets from the top of the tree that will hang down toward the ground without touching it. Its entire canopy sprawls outward like a dome with the entire tree covered with its trademark vibrant flowers during the blossoming season.

If you’re interested in landscape aesthetics, then you could do no better than planting the visually majestic Pohutukawa on your property and this guide provides all the information you need to know about planting, growing and caring for this lovely landscape tree.

Growing a Pohutukawa Tree From a Seed, Cutting, or Seedling

Whether you are considering growing a pohutukawa tree from a cutting or growing a pohutukawa tree from a seedling, you should spend some time researching and considering your cultivar options.

You will have an easier time growing an Americanized cultivar of a Pohutukawa or a Rata instead of trying to grow them from a seed, cutting, or seedling.

It could take you as much as 36 months to grow a young Pohutukawa sapling from seed, seedling, or cutting. In other words, you will need to first grow your Pohutukawa indoors as a potted plant for 2 to 3 years before you can transplant it outside.

Graphics and texts that shows how to identify pohutukawa tree.

(Seed Pods Image: Avenue23)

If you opt to grow from seed, remember that Pohutukawa seeds cause mild tactile itchiness. Prepare a seedling tray with two to three inches of soil.

Insert each seed less than an inch into the soil. Apply a thin layer of sand over the tray and water until damp but not soaking.

Place the tray in a plastic bag or cover it with plastic film. Water the soil twice daily for seven to 14 days until you see sprouting.

Then, cut back the watering to about once daily for another week or two. It’s time to transfer the seedlings when they grow up an inch or two vertically.

After that, you can transplant the seedlings to a plant and let them grow for another 24 to 36 months. You need access to a Pohutukawa tree to get a cutting, or you can source one from a trusted nursery.

From a Cutting

If you know someone with a Pohutukawa, and you get their permission, you can prep your own cutting. Firstly, you need to find a strong but relatively thin branch.

It can be as thick as a pencil or wide-width pen. With a clean but sharp knife or vegetable peeler, strip away a two-inch section of bark down to the woody flesh around the circumference of the branch.

Apply some root hormone to the exposed wood on the branch. Cover the exposed area with peat moss, Sphagnum moss, or coconut coir until it is completely covered.

The moss or coir will become a growing medium for the exposed part of the branch to begin growing roots. Make sure that you apply a small amount of water to the coir or moss to keep it damp but not soaking.

Then, tightly cover the damp moss or coir with plastic cling wrap. You will have to patiently wait and check on the cling wrap for anywhere between a month to six weeks.

When you see root growth visibly through the plastic cling film, you can gently cut the cutting away from the tree just under the moss or coir. Then, gently remove the plastic cling film and transplant it into a large pot.

How Often Do You Have To Water a Pohutukawa Tree?

The watering needs for pohutukawa tree plant species in a pot is about once weekly or every three days depending on the growth rate of the plant. It is more important that you keep the soil damp but never soaking wet.

Watering a tree like a young Pohutukawa may only be necessary once a week. One of the most undeniable Pohutukawa tree facts is that it is a strong tree that will grow despite you, just never overwater it.

Planting a Pohutukawa Outside

First, make sure that your growing zone supports the tree.

Dig a hole that is a foot or longer in a radius with the hole being as deep as the root ball. Do not plant a sapling or cut it too deep because it might become stressed or succumb to root rot.

Cover the collar of the tree with soil that is well enriched with your choice of fertilizer. Don’t be stingy with the fertilizer.

Tamp down the soil gently with a shovel, trowel, or your shoes. Liberally spread mulching around trees, especially young trees, that you have just planted.

Mulch suppresses the growth of weeds, helps soil retain moisture longer, and adds additional nutrients to the soil as it slowly decays.

Pohutukawa Tree, Iron Tree, and New Zealand Christmas Tree

(Metrosideros excelsa)

Pohutukawa Tree in an oval frame on green background.
  • Family: Myrtaceae
  • Genus: Metrosideros
  • Leaf: Oblong or feather-shaped and leathery dark green colored leaves that feature tiny hair-like growths on the underside of the leaf.
  • Bark: Grey or brown colored
  • Seed: Small red or reddish brown seeds that appear in capsules that were the former flowers. Pohutukawa seeds act as a mild irritant that can mild itchiness and should be handled carefully.
  • Blossoms: The Pohutukawa is renowned for its vibrant flowers blossoming in November through January, but the tree’s flowers will blossom sporadically a few times throughout the year.
  • Fruit: The Pohutukawa does not bear fruit, only seeds
  • Native Habitat: New Zealand
  • Height: A Pohutukawa can grow anywhere between 40 feet and over 80 feet tall.
  • Canopy: The canopy of a Pohutukawa can sprawl about 30 feet to as much as 160 feet depending on the height of the tree and the sprawl of its multi-trunk system.
  • Type: Evergreen
  • Native Growing Zone: Pohutukawa are hardy trees that can grow in USDA Hardiness Zones 7,8,9,10, and 11, but the optimal zones for growth are zones 10 and 11.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Ranking

Not Evaluated


Image Credit: Hans25

Culturally Sacred and Majestically Beautiful Pohutukawa

The Pohutukawa is an aesthetically stunning and culturally vital tree to the Maori people that is native to New Zealand but was probably introduced to the country via Australian settlers long ago.1 The Pohutukawa is a multi-trunked tree that grows extremely dense and fibrous wood.

It is known for growing tall, dense, and fibrous aerial roots that extend vertically from the ground as if they were mini trunks themselves. Crimson-colored and densely fibrous roots sometimes grow downward like vines and resemble the “weeping” aesthetics of the Willow Tree.

The Pohutukawa is renowned for its dome-shaped and brushy stamen flowers that blossom in red, orange, pink, and white colors throughout the year, but especially during the Christmas season in New Zealand. The tree is also known as the New Zealand Christmas Tree.

This tree looks like it would not be out of place in a fantasy film. Although it is not cold-hardy, the Pohutukawa can grow up to 80 feet, live hundreds of years, and is utilized often for its soil protection and anti-erosion properties on commercial properties just as much for its attention-grabbing aesthetics.

As long as you don’t plant the Pohutukawa near utility or structural infrastructures, it will serve every need you have for appealing landscape aesthetics. It is not enough to just plant a tree on your property, you have to plant it in strategic spots to serve predetermined purposes.

If you plan to plant a tree that will grow over 25 feet, then you should make sure that it is at least 20 feet from utility infrastructure, and boundary lines, and not under power lines.2 Planting a tree aesthetically in the right place can be a financially fruitful decision to make for a homeowner.

Homes with a tree placed anywhere on the property can sell for anywhere between 3.5 percent to over 15 percent above the home’s true market value.3 Still, many trees on personal properties live for about eight years due to haphazard or non-existent preplanning, random aesthetic placement and planting, and non-maintenance.4

Pohutukawa trees can be grown as privacy screen hedges or trees and can be strategically placed near trees to add shade and provide extra oxygen. This species of tree can live hundreds of years, grow densely strong aerial roots that can obstruct and displace infrastructure, and grow really tall, so you may want to consult with an arborist or landscaping consultant before planting a Pohutukawa on your property.

The New Zealand government has launched a conservation effort in recent years to save the tree and encourage people to plant it more since it is endangered in its native habitat.

Metrosideros Excelsa, Also Known as the New Zealand Christmas Tree

Metrosideros excelsa is the species name for the Pohutukawa also known as the New Zealand Christmas Tree.5 Some experts believe that there are less than a dozen species and subspecies of the Pohutukawa.

Other experts believe that when you count hybrids and cultivars there are almost 60 species of Pohutukawa in existence.6 The Pohutukawa is a natively ubiquitous and culturally and mythologically important tree to New Zealand society, especially the Maori people.

Pohutukawa trees are renowned for living for hundreds of years; there is a historic tree in Cape Reinga, New Zealand that is over 800 years old.7 Pohutukawa trees are coastal and evergreen trees that grow gnarly, fibrous, and dense roots that grow deep and laterally underground.

The tree acts as a vital erosion stopgap on coastlines. In New Zealand, it is not uncommon to see Pohutukawa trees growing horizontally under the edges of coastal cliffs.

Some New Zealand homeowners, anxious to improve the coastline aesthetics of their home, will have nearby Pohutukawa trees and unwittingly cause later cliff collapse, home damage, or even loss.8 This tree is drought-resistant and can withstand coastal saltwater splashes, sprays, and breezes.

Although there are a few variations on the origin of the Maori word “Pohutukawa,” “Metrosideros” has Greek etymological origins and it might mean “iron” or “heartwood”. In Maori, Pohutukawa might roughly translate to the “leaping place,” or “place of leaping.”9

In Maori mythology, the spirits of the recently dead would leap off a coastline cliff and follow the dense roots of the Pohutukawa down into the afterlife. 19th Century New World explorers, settlers, and missionaries brought their religion and Christmas customs to New Zealand and were comforted to find the vibrantly blossoming Pohutukawa in a new land.

Some New World Setthers even referred to the native tree, foreign to them, as the “Settler’s Christmas Tree.”9 Even though pohutukawa trees have been sacred and celebrated in New Zealand for hundreds of years, it is also endangered in the country.

The Australian possum and other foreign wildlife, introduced to New Zealand long ago, catastrophically browse the tree. Browsing is another word for wildlife animals eating the leaves, bark, seeds, fruit, branches, and vital parts of the tree in repetitive manners as a vital food source and precipitating its destruction.10

Conservation Drive for the New Zealand Tree(Pohutukawa Tree)

The New Zealand government actively encourages the development and cultivation of Pohutukawa tree hybrids, disease-resistant cultivars, and variants to stave off the potential extinction of the plant. Its conservation project to save the tree is called Project Crimson.

Although you might only be able to acquire a hybrid or variant of the New Zealand Christmas tree, you could be doing a lot to keep the species alive. As previously mentioned, Pohutukawa wood is very fibrous and dense and has historically been used in the past for shipbuilding.

Photo of metrosideros excelsa.

(Image: Kristina D.C. Hoeppner22)

It grows dense and fibrous aerial roots that can sometimes resemble mini trunks. Plant it far from other plants, underground pipe infrastructures, boundary lines with neighbors, sidewalks, etc.

You may also want to confer with an arborist or landscaping professional before planting a Pohutukawa on your property. In some parts of the Western United States and South Africa, the Pohutukawa is classified as an invasive species that can destroy local utility infrastructure, pipes, and sidewalks, and greedily siphon soil resources and water from local fauna.

Strategically consider where you will plant a Pohutukawa before committing and actually doing it.

Pohutukawa and Rata Trees

As previously mentioned, this comprehensive guide will offer tips on how to grow Pohutukawa trees and even add descriptions of several hybrids and cultivar variants. However, you can also grow Northern Rata or Southern Rata, which are familial plant species related under the classification genus Metrosideros.11

Pohutukawa and Rata trees are basically sibling species under a scientific classification family; both species are very similar in aesthetics but grow in different manners. Northern Rata, Metrosideros robusta, can grow to similar heights as the Pohutukawa.12

Some species of Northern Rata are actually hemiepiphyte species; Northern Rata starts life as a plant that grows at the top of a host tree, grows down roots to the soil, strangles the tree, and then has roots inhabit and grow within the interior of the tree like a body snatcher.13 However, it should be noted that some species of Northern Rata grow traditionally from the ground without hemiepiphyte attributes.

Northern Rata is considered an endangered species in New Zealand along with the Pohutukawa. Southern Rata, Metrosideros umbellata, generally does not have any hemiepiphyte tendencies and grows vertically upwards from the soil.14

It is not considered an endangered species in New Zealand. The main aesthetic difference between Pohutukawa and Rata is that only the undersides of Pohutukawa leaves feature tiny white hair-like growths while Rata leaves do not.

Pohutukawa and Northern Rata leaves are oblong are oblong or feather-shaped with a rounded tip. Southern Rata leaves are the same shape but usually have pointed tips.

While this comprehensive guide will introduce several Pohutukawa hybrids and variants it will also offer some Rata variants as alternate choices.

How To Identify Pohutukawa Tree

You would really have to go out of your way to not notice a Pohutukawa. The roots of a Pohutukawa are technically called aerial roots because they are densely woody, and fibrous and can grow up from the ground and aesthetically resemble thinner mini-trunks.

Many Pohutukawas grow as multi-trunk trees, or really large shrubs, that can grow really tall and with a sprawling canopy. The striking and vibrantly colored flowers that grow sporadically throughout the year make the tree an attention-grabbing sight.

The dense, fibrous roots, multiple trunks, and branches of the Pohutukawa tree can gnarl, twist, stretch, and grow for up to a century. The tree is notorious for being able to grow horizontally and vertically upwards from the underside of coastal cliffs as well as withstand the abrasiveness of seawater.

The aerial roots of the Pohutukawa can grow in sub-optimal soil conditions, so the roots are used to aggressively search for water and sustenance.

Pohutukawa Leaves

Pohutukawa leaves are either shaped like a feather or usually oblong shaped. The topside of Pohutukawa leaves is usually green or dark green and a lighter, duller hue of green on the underside.

Pohutukawa leaves also feature tiny hair-like growths that cover the underside.

Pohutukawa Flower

The Pohutukawa flower is two or three obstructed petal pads from which dozens of bristle-thin stamens grow. The pohutukawa flower is famous for its firey crimson red hues, but the flowers can also be pink, white, and orange colored.

The flowers bloom on this evergreen tree a few times during the year but is renowned for blooming during the Christmas season in New Zealand.

Pohutukawa Seeds

Pohutukawa seeds grow in clusters within the flowers after the bloom season is over. Pohutukawa seeds are reddish brown in color and very small.

These seeds are also a mild irritant and can cause topical itchiness; the seeds were once used as an ingredient in itching powder products that were used in pranks.8 Pohutukawa seeds can grow in 30-seed bunches per cluster.

Pohutukawa Tree Disease Prevention

Pohutukawa and Rata trees are also in the scientific order classification Myrtales which also makes them related to Myrtle trees.15 Myrtle rust is a very contagious and destructive plant disease that produces spore clusters on the plant that burst and spread the disease quickly.

Myrtle rust aesthetically manifests as brown, yellow, or yellowish-orange spots on leaves, flowers, and branches, and then turns into inflamed discolored lesions that then become rotting pustules that produce spores to spread the disease further. If left unchecked Myrtle rust will kill your Pohutukawa.

Prune infected leaves, flowers, or limbs and apply appropriate fungicide products. Always wear gloves when pruning infected leaves and take care to carefully segregate them so as not to spread the disease to nearby gardens or trees.

That is the optimum method for learning how to stop pohutukawa tree disease. Another issue will maintaining Pohutukawa trees is root rot, which is only an issue if the soil is not well draining.

Pohutukawa Tree Growing Zone

What are the optimum growing zones for Pohutukawa tree? Where to grow to ensure success?

The optimum USDA Hardiness zones for the Pohutukawa are zones 10 and 11. However, Pohutukawa trees can grow ably in USDA Hardiness Zones 7,8,9,10, and 11.

Pohutukawa Tree Growth Rate

So, how long it takes to grow a Pohutukawa tree? How long it takes for a tree to grow depends on numerous factors like tree pollination and the types of trees in question.

Graphics that shows the pohutukawa tree growth rate.

Ancient Pohutukawa trees were probably pollinated more by crawling gecko lizards and birds than bees, for example. Before you try to grow a tree like the Pohutukawa consult with an arborist or expert at a nursery to find the right cultivar for your needs.

Young pohutukawa saplings grow about a foot per year. After a few years or decades, older Pohutukawa trees will grow about four inches per year.

Companion Plants For Growing Pohutukawa Tree

Pohutukawa trees aggressively grow an underground network of roots that search for water and fertilizer in a predatory fashion. Its roots become aerial above the soil because it is aggressively searching for water; even if the tree has ample water sources, its ancient botanical genetics still compel the tree to grow dense, fibrous and toughened roots.

The Nothern Rata tree sibling species of the Pohutukawa usually starts life as a parasite-like plant that lives on the summit of the tree, grows roots downward to the base of the tree, strangles the host tree’s roots of resources, and then grows within the husk of the tree. The point is that the Pohutukawa is an ancient tree that is used to aggressively and greedily seek out underground and overground resources.

Keep in mind that while the Pohutukawa is considered endangered in its endemic New Zealand, it is considered a nuisance plant and an invasive species in other parts of the world. A green lawn can be safely grown under a Pohutukawa, but is not a good idea to grow companion plants near it.

How far apart to plant Pohutukawa tree species? Any plants, gardens, or trees should be spaced 10 or 15 feet away from your Pohutukawa, and the more space, the better. If you’re growing a Pohutukawa as an aesthetic landscape spotlight, give it as much space as possible.

What Are The Best Growing Conditions for Pohutukawa Tree?

Here are some optimum planting tips for Pohutukawa tree maintenance. The Pohutukawa grows optimally in loamy or sandy soil conditions; the soil should be well-draining as well to prevent root rot.

Graphics with texts and images showing the best growing conditions for pohutukawa tree

The pH of the soil can be neutral or slightly acidic. You may need to occasionally trim the lowest tier branches as the tree grows to help it develop its sprawling, multi-trunk canopy in a more efficient fashion.

This tree is extremely wind tolerant and can be planted on the coast near salt water. You don’t need the best soil conditions to grow this tree, but don’t go out of your way to do so.

How much sunlight does Pohutukawa tree need each day? The Pohutukawa tree requires at least six hours of direct sunlight but can survive on a little less as long as there is ample indirect sunlight as well.

If you are wondering when to plant Pohutukawa tree for the best yield, the middle of Fall until early Spring are the best times of the year to plant Pohutukawa.

Pohutukawa Pest Control Methods

When it comes to the common pests of the pohutukawa tree, the tree is bedeviled by a leaf miner weevil native to New Zealand. Beyond that, the Pohutukawa tree is pretty pest-resistant since some trees can live for as long as 1,000 years.

If you live somewhere where possums and similar animals are present, then browsing might be a problem, but it is really an issue in New Zealand because it is a remote island nation. The best natural pest control for Pohutukawa tree species you plant is to make sure you don’t plant it anywhere local wildlife might have an interest in eating it.

Why Is the Pohutukawa Endangered in New Zealand?

There are numerous reasons why the Pohutukawa is endangered in New Zealand. Australian possums were introduced to the country long ago and have dwindled population numbers due to browsing.

Myrtle Rust is also endangering the tree. Modernity and construction and also taking a toll on the viability of an endemic species on an island nation.

Types of Pohutukawa Tree, Hybrids, Cultivars, and Rata Variants

You can look for these specialized cultivars that are designed to grow up to 36 inches and are optimal for garden landscapes and indoor gardening. If you are not yet ready for the commitment of a Pohutukawa, this might be an easier way to get introduced to the species.

Red Baby (Metrosideros Collina)

Metrosideros collina is a Pohutukawa hybrid that is native to Samoa and Fiji.16 This cultivar is prized by gardeners for its vibrantly red stamens.

Close up of a Metrosideros Collina flower attached to a stem surrounded by round green leaves.

(Image: Hitchster19)


This Pohutukawa cultivar is a variant of Red Baby. Its flowers are strikingly orange and red with yellow dot color accents at the tips of the stamens.

Can grow up to 36 inches.

Photo of the Tahiti.

(Image: Velela24)

Carousel (Metrosideros Carminea)

Metrosideros carminea is technically a Rata species of vine and sprawling shrub.17 This cultivar is ideal for use as a short hedge or colorful landscape addition to a garden.

Close up image of the flower of Carousel.

(Image: Sarefo20)

The stamens are a magenta or hot pink and reddish hue contrasted with leaves that have a deep yellow border and a green interior.


“Variegata” is a Metrosideros excelsa cultivar that is also known by the name Variegated Pohutukawa. It is a hybridized cultivar of a sibling species of Pohutukawa known as Metrosideros kermadecensis.18

Metrosideros kermadecensis is related to Metrosideros excelsa and is often confused with the other but are different plant species.

Photo of a man holding a Variegata.

(Image: Forest and Kim Starr21)

Metrosideros kermadecensis is sometimes called the New Zealand Christmas Bush. A cultivar hybrid of these two species creates Variegata.

The leaves of this cultivar have a whitish-grey border and green centers. This cultivar is a tree and can grow as high as 65 feet.

The Pohutukawa is a national and cultural treasure in New Zealand but can easily become a great ornamental and privacy screen tree on your landscape.

If you’re looking to improve your property’s landscape aesthetics and perhaps increase your property values, as well as potentially help stop a plant extinction, consider planting a Pohutukawa tree today if your climate can support it.

Frequently Asked Questions About Pohutukawa Tree

Is The Pohutukawa Tree Considered an Invasive Species Outside of New Zealand?

In some coastal cities in California, the roots of the Pohutukawa are notorious for destroying sidewalks and sewer pipes.5 The tree is considered an invasive city in South Africa as well.5

Are Pohutukawa Seeds an Irritant Threat?

Pohutukawa seeds are low-level irritant threats since they cause tactile itchiness. The seeds were once used to create itching powder.8

Why Is the Pohutukawa Not Considered Endangered Outside of New Zealand?

Each country has authorities who create standards that decide which animals or plants are considered endangered. In Australia, the Pohutukawa is considered nearly extinct but in some parts of the United States and South Africa, it is a nuisance plant and an invasive species that can’t be controlled.

Does the Pohutukawa Have Any Medicinal Benefits?

The Pohutukawa is processed in some skincare, moisturizer, and astringent products in New Zealand. The Maori have used the Pohutukawa as a natural medicine to treat abrasions, wounds, and diarrhea for centuries.5

Read More About Pohutukawa Tree


1Katz, B. (23, June 2017). New Zealand’s Iconic Pōhutukawa Tree May Have Roots in Australia. Smithsonian. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/new-zealands-iconic-phutukawa-tree-may-have-roots-australia-180963818/>

2Smith, P. (28, April 2022). Planting the Right Tree in the Right Place. Arbor Day Foundation. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://arbordayblog.org/treeplanting/need-know-planting-right-tree-right-place/>

3Yale, A. (11, July 2022). Want to Boost the Value of Your Home? Plant a Tree — Right Now. Money. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://money.com/boost-value-of-home-with-trees/>

4Whiting, D., Cox, R., & O., Carol. (2023). GardenNotes #631 Tree Placement: Right Plant, Right Place. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://static.colostate.edu/client-files/csfs/pdfs/631.pdf>

5Wikipedia. (2023). Metrosideros excelsa. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrosideros_excelsa>

6Downing, A,. Atwell, B,. Marais, K,. & Downing, K. (2023). Metrosideros. Macquarie University. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://www.mq.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/1274804/Plant-of-the-week-Metrosideros-Not-all-are-NZ-Christmas-Bushes-ed-B.A..pdf>

7New Zealand Department of Conservation. (2023). Pōhutukawa is New Zealand’s Christmas tree, and holds a prominent place in Maori mythology. New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://www.doc.govt.nz/nature/native-plants/pohutukawa/>

8Simpson, S. (9, December 2015). Pohutukawa and rata: How to grow New Zealand’s Christmas trees. Stuff. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://www.stuff.co.nz/life-style/home-property/nz-gardener/74883023/pohutukawa-and-rata-how-to-grow-new-zealands-christmas-trees>

9New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. (18 October 2023). Pōhutukawa trees. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/pohutukawa-flowers>

10Russell, M. (7 November 2020). How to identify deer browse in the woods. UME. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://extension.umn.edu/my-minnesota-woods/how-identify-deer-browse-woods>

11Wikipedia. (2023). Metrosideros. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrosideros>

12Wikipedia. (2023). Metrosideros robusta. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrosideros_robusta>

13Wikipedia. (2023). Hemiepiphyte. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemiepiphyte>

14Wikipedia. (2023). Metrosideros umbellata. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrosideros_umbellata>

15Wikipedia. (2023). Myrtales. Wikipedia. 9 Decemeber 2023. Web. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myrtales>

16Wikipedia. (2023). Metrosideros collina. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrosideros_collina>

17Wikipedia. (2023). Metrosideros carminea. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrosideros_carminea>

18Wikipedia. (2023). Metrosideros kermadecensis. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrosideros_kermadecensis>

19O’hia blossom Photo by Hitchster. Attribution (CC BY 2.0). Cropped, Resized and Changed Format. Flickr. Retrieved January 12, 2024, from <https://www.flickr.com/photos/hitchster/3773052543/>

20Flowers and leaves of Metrosideros carminea in the Botanical Garden (Flora) of Cologne, Germany Photo by Sarefo. CC BY-SA 3.0 DEED | Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported. Cropped and Resized. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Metrosideros.carminea.flowers.jpg>

21Metrosideros kermadecensis (Ohia haole, pohutukawa) Photo by Forest and Kim Starr. CC BY 2.0 DEED | Attribution 2.0 Generic. Cropped and Resized. Flickr. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://flickr.com/photos/starr-environmental/24732107739/>

22Pohutukawa in full bloom. Photo by Kristina D.C. Hoeppner. CC BY-SA 2.0 DEED | Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic. Cropped and Resized. Flickr. Retrieved December 13, 2023, from <https://flickr.com/photos/4nitsirk/16156408756/>

23Pohutukawa Seed Pod Photo by Avenue / Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0 Deed ). Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved January 2, 2024 from <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pohutukawa_seeds,_ready_for_release.jpg>

24Metrosideros collina Photo By Velela / CC BY-SA 3.0 DEED | Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported. Cropped, Added text, shape, and background elements, and Changed Format. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved January 2, 2024 <https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8761112>

25Blossom Bloom Red Blooming Photo by Hans. (2013, June28) / Pixabay Content License. Cropped and added text, shape, and background elements. Pixabay. Retrieved February 16, 2024, from <https://pixabay.com/photos/blossom-bloom-red-blooming-141639/>