October Glory Maple Tree: Growing Zones, Planting Tips, ID Chart, Pictures

Woman with a magnifying glass examines an October Glory Maple tree leaf after learning how to identify October glory maple trees, growing zones, and planting autumn blaze maple trees tips.

Spectacular in its own right, the October Glory Maple Tree is a cultivar of the Red Maple Tree which is the most common Maple tree in North America.

But why craft a cultivar from a tree that some would consider an already perfect specimen?

It was done to enhance the attributes that people already love about this lovely tree.

This guide provides tons of information about how to recognize and identify an October Glory Maple tree, and also explores planting and care tips for growing an October Glory in your own backyard.

October Glory Red Maple (Maple Tree in Fall)

Botanists in the 1960s decided to take the most popular Red Maple Tree that spanned across vast tracts of land from Ontario to Texas and make it better.

Its red bristling leaves were a common feature in forests, swamps, and sidewalks, and they decided to remake the October Glory Maple in its image, only more compact.

The Red Maple is a big tree, reaching 100-120 feet in height, with leaves up to 11cm long, and a trunk with a diameter of 90 cm to 153 cm when allowed to grow unencumbered in forests. Not a huge tree, but by no means a tiny one either.

The October Glory Maple is a smaller version with a height of just 30-50 feet which makes it more manageable in gardens and parks with a narrower trunk and longer leaves of 15cm.

It’s not the size of the leaves that is its distinguishing feature, or even the reddish-purple coloring compared to the traditional orange-red.

But the leaves do account for the name.

October Glory Maple Tree

(Acer rubrum)

October Glory Maple Tree in oval frame on a green background.
  • Family: Sapindaceae
  • Genus: Acer
  • Leaf: Dark green, 5–10 cm long, and with 6–10 cm lobes
  • Bark: Gray and thin, but then gets darker and forms plates as it cracks
  • Seed: Called samara, the seeds are helicopter-shaped for
  • Blossoms: March-April
  • Fruit: A flat, fibrous dry winged fruit that is seamless
  • Native Habitat: North America
  • Height: 30-50 feet
  • Canopy: 25-35 feet
  • Type: Deciduous
  • Native Growing Zone: It can grow in dry soils, rich, sandy, silty, loam, and clay soils, as well as in swamps.
  • USDA Hardiness Zone: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Ranking

Least Concern


In the fall, bare branches are the norm for most deciduous types of trees,3 all of the leaves pulling away from the twigs by September, the occasional leaf hanging on grimly till October.

There are some types of Maple Trees that still have a full canopy but none can compete with the October Glory Maple for widespread beauty.

The leaves stay green until late September and don’t even turn red until early October when they are the traditional orange-red.

As the month progresses, the tree is still showing off its now reddish-purple foliage in all its glory, and its leaves will remain twigged close to the end of the month whereas other trees would have long succumbed to the cold weeks earlier.

If you were wondering how the October Glory Maple got its name, now you know.

October Glory Maple Growth Rate (October Glory Maple Growing Zone)

Generally, if a tree grows too fast, the wood is not as durable as one that has a slower growth rate. This isn’t a hard and fast rule as the environment can also affect how fast a tree grows and how tall it can get.

The October Glory Maple Tree grows at a rate of between 30-50cm a year but there are some fast-growing maple trees that put on 45-60 cm of additional height, and others that even eclipse that growth spurt.

A graphic that shows the October Glory Maple Tree growth rate from year 1 up to year 15 and beyond.

The Autumn Blaze Maple is the clear winner in this category with an extra 90cm of height added on a year.

As for growing conditions, most maple trees can flourish in a diverse range of soil compositions that are dry, of poor quality, rich in nutrients, and even swamp-like, yet it loathes sitting in standing water for any length of time.

The lifespan of the tree can be shortened, though, if the soil is too challenging, but on average an October Glory Maple lifespan is about 100 years.

Autumn Blaze Maple Tree vs October Glory Maple Tree

The Autumn Blaze (Acer freemanii) and the October Glory (Acer rubrum) are actually two very similar trees,9 with just a few minute differences.

Both of them are particularly popular and welcomed into garden areas across the country for the shade provided by their wide canopies, and their spectacular red foliage in the fall.

Autumn Blaze Maple tree and October Glory Maple tree comparison diagram showing the differences and similarities of the two species based on lifespan, growth rate, height, width, leaves, bark, trunk, and growing zones.

If you’re a touch on the impatient side and want your fledging maple tree to grow faster, then the Autumn Blaze could be for you as it’s the fastest-growing maple on the market.

But if you’re growing an October Glory Maple from a seedling and are happy to watch it mature gradually, then that’s the tree you should choose.

Either one will still be displaying a blaze of glorious red in the winter when all other trees are flashing empty branches.

Autumn BlazeOctober Glory
Height45-50 feet30-50 feet
Width35-40 feet25-35 feet
Growth rate90 cm a year30-50 cm a year
BarkSmooth and gray when young. Darkens with ageSmooth and gray when young. Gets darker with age
LeavesLarge and wide with 5 lobesDark green/silver underneath. 3-5 lobes
TrunkUp to 3 feet in diameterUp to 3 feet in diameter
Lifespan60 years100-150 years
USDA Hardiness Zone3-84-9

October Glory Maple Tree Pros and Cons (Growing Zones, Planting Tips)

How long it takes to grow October Glory Maple is not one of the problems that this tree has.

It has a steady growth rate and even when growing an October Glory Maple from a cutting it doesn’t require too much time in a container before it can be transplanted in a permanent location.

Low angle shot of Red Maple trees with their dark colored barks and red leaves situated in a forest.

That is just one of the pros of designing your landscape with this tree in mind.

Other benefits include:

  • It can be grown in bad as well as good soil. So even if the soil starts out perfect and then has a few issues, the tree can adapt and overcome them.
  • Maintenance free. With proper pruning techniques and weekly watering sessions,4 October Glory can be left to fend for itself.
  • There is an amazing display showcased from the rounded canopy, though, even when not trimmed, remains uniform and casts a splendidly large shadow.
  • The foliage is lustrous when dark green, and amazing when turning bright red.
  • Periods of drought will not have the October Glory gasping of thirst. It is drought-tolerant and can remain vibrant until the next watering cycle.
    The watering needs for October Glory Maple plants may increase during exceptionally very dry periods, but generally only when the soil is dry to a depth of 1-2 inches.

So what are the cons?

  • One of the most important planting tips for October Glory Maple Trees is to maintain a distance of 20-25 feet away from houses, patios, or other trees. If situated too close to another type of structure, you’ll soon come to regret it as the shallow roots start poking up and pushing stuff over.
  • The seeds are encased in pods that have the ability to zoom all over the place. Their nickname is helicopter seeds, and these winged fruits, as they are actually fruits, will make a mess as they whizz around and settle all over the ground.
  • Ground-growing suckers need to be removed from the base of the trunk to prevent damage to a young tree. If not they can cause girdling and deplete the tree of much-needed nutrients.

October Glory Maple Seeds (ID Chart)

There are not many seeds in the kingdom Plantae that are as unique as the samara, also known as the helicopter seed.

In fact, the seed is found inside the samara which is the dried fruit that grows on maple trees. It is an inedible dried outer husk that is fibrous, wing-like and is classed as being indehiscent, meaning that it does not possess an opening seam that cracks open as it ripens.

Instead, when that day arrives, it breaks away and spins away into the distance.

This rotating motion is where the nickname comes from and it is believed that it’s a genetic mutation from these particular trees to help spread the seeds as far away from the parent tree as possible to increase propagation.

Close up of red, two-winged helicopter seeds of a maple tree.

(Image: HeungSoon13)

These helicopter seeds are only present in 11 species of trees,8 even though there are over 132 species of maple trees on the planet, only 4 of them possess this special seed.

Those 4 Maple Tree species are:

  1. Red Maple Trees
  2. Norway Maple Trees
  3. Silver Maple Trees
  4. Japanese Maple Trees

In the United Kingdom, which also has red maple, silver maple, and Norway maple, they call the samara fruit a spinning jenny.

The other 7 species with samaras can be found in the U.S., South America, Canada, and China, and the shapes can differ from double-winged, single-winged, and circular.

  1. Common Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata)
  2. Green Ash (Fraxinum pennsylvanica)
  3. Tipu Tree (Tipuana tipu)
  4. Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima)
  5. Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera)
  6. Velvet Ash (Fraxinus velutina)
  7. Winged Elm (Ulmus alata)

Acer Rubrum October Glory: How To Identify October Glory Maple Tree

As it is one of the last of the maple trees, or any deciduous tree for that matter, to lose its leaves in the fall, is a firm way to identify the October Glory Maple tree.

Combine that with the reddish-purple hue of the leaves and the helicopter seeds, and differentiating this type of maple from other types becomes a lot easier.

A graphic that shows the October Glory Maple Tree identification chart on its leaves, flowers, seeds, and bark.

Trying to use the growing zones for October Glory Maple, where to grow them doesn’t help much as they grow in a range of diverse soils.

Rely on the presence of the double-winged samsaras for identification, collect them when they take off in the spring and you can not only learn about the process of growing an October Glory Maple from a seed, but how to extract, prepare and eat them.

The Seedy Parts of a Tree

If you’ve never harvested or gathered the samaras from a Maple Tree, the key is timing. In other words, you have to get there in spring before the scampering squirrels beat you to them and claim these specific parts of a tree.

After consuming their stored stash of food throughout the winter months, they are ready to diversify their diet and know how to sniff out the tasty samara seeds.

The best ones are those that are still green – and small. The larger seeds are not as rich in flavor and any samaras that are browning will have a slightly bitter taste to them.

Obviously, it’s not possible to gauge the size of the seeds by feel alone, unless you’re a seasoned gatherer, so collect a wide range and go for quantity rather than a restricted selection. Even if a few of them do turn out to be larger and more bitter than desired, there is a method to overcome that drawback.

After prying the seed free from the outer layer, soak the interior pod in water for an hour to make it easier to extract the seed itself. Baking, roasting, or boiling are methods of preparing them either to eat immediately with a bit of seasoning or add to salads and stir-fries.

They last for several months so make a great carry-along snack when on the go.

October Glory Maple Problems (October Glory Maple Disease Prevention)

Hybrid trees are often improved genetically to make them bigger, smaller, live longer, or look better. Disease and pest resistance are sometimes a consideration but it is nigh on impossible to eliminate all of the problems that can assault a tree.

One of them that bothers an October Glory Maple Tree is sun-scald. If the samaras get exposed to too much intense sunlight they can become burnt, just like humans.

Not lethal, it will weaken the defenses of the tree and open the door for other more dangerous diseases to take hold.

1. Chlorosis

Autumn Blaze, October Glory, and other hybrid maples are frequently affected by chlorosis or iron deficiency, not from the absence of iron in the soil but from the tree’s inability to absorb it.

The first symptom is yellowing between the normally deep-green leaf veins followed by the branches that may well die back within the year.

  • Treatment and Prevention

Any tree that is prone to contracting chlorosis should not be planted in soils that are low in organic materials or that have a high pH content. To avoid this fungus always do a soil test before, but if it does appear suddenly, apply a fertilizer rich in nitrogen and sulfur, or a foliar spray.

Close up of a maple leaf covered in white fine powder showing signs of powdery mildew.

(Image: Björn S…15)

2. Powdery Mildew

As the name suggests, this widespread fungus blankets the leaves with a fine white powder or spots, but it can also appear on flowers and fruits.These spores can cause fewer flowers to bloom, yellowing and distortion of the leaves, stunt the growth of the tree, and will flourish when there is a prolonged absence of sunlight and inadequate ventilation.

Although damage to your ornamental plant is usually not lethal, powdery mildew becomes severe if not addressed in a timely fashion.10

  • Treatment and Prevention

A baking soda or neem oil solution can work as a treatment and a form of prevention by regular spraying. Trimming away infection sections will also stop the spreading as will the application of a fungicide specifically for powdery mildew.

3. Anthracnose

Anthracnose is a fungus that causes distorted leaves with discolored, ugly brown patches on the foliage that can cause the tree to lose all its leaves.

It initially assaults the Maple Tree by hiding during the winter months under fresh buds, twigs, or fallen leaves and samsaras laying around the base.

Close up of a leaf infected by anthracnose showing discoloration and brown spots on its foliage.

(Image: Jerzy Opioła16)

Spores will grow within the leaf spots and spread throughout the tree canopy if the weather stays chilly and rainy, often traveling on the wind by water splashes to infect newly developing leaves in the spring.

As the warmth of spring approaches, new leaves will develop – and become infected, and this cycle will continue if the weather stays cool and, dam.

  • Treatment and Prevention

Fully mature leaves are immune to infection unless they sustain even a slight wound, such as from an insect pest. The illness will stop spreading and the tree will regrow its leaves once the weather stabilizes and the leaves reach maturity.

If concerned that this fungal infection may rear its ugly head, applying copper fungicides as a preventative measure will solve this potential problem before it can become a headache.

4. Verticillium Wilt

This is another fungal disease that can harm hybrid maple trees.

It enters the tree through surface roots that may have been damaged by insects or sharp tools accidentally piercing the bark and can remain dormant in the soil for lengthy periods of time.

The infection prevents water from flowing properly throughout the tree’s system, causing the leaves to dry out and eventually fall off. The delicate sapwood beneath the bark also turns dark green to black as the disease gets a tighter grip.

As the fungus thrives in low temperatures, symptoms are likely to occur in late spring.

  • Treatment and Prevention

Unfortunately, there is no cure but it doesn’t spell doom for the tree. A touch of strategic pruning of the parts that are visible and fumigating the soil may help the tree to revitalize itself.

The worst-case scenario uprooting and disposing of the tree completely.

5. Tar Spots

Rhytisma fungi create a variety of nonlethal but unattractive tar stains on maple leaves.1 The spots appear as little yellow areas on top of the leaves in the spring, and by late summer, the patches have grown into thick, shiny lesions that mar the pristine appearance of your Maple Tree.

Close up of a tree leaf infected by rhytisma showing tar stains on its foliage.

(Image: Stephen James McWilliam17)

  • Treatment and Prevention

There is no form of treatment. The greatest defense is a good offense, so get rid of any fallen leaves that might be infected to control the disease.

Pick up old leaves and debris that may invite bugs or maple spider mites to set up home.

If there is one thing to take away from learning about how to stop October Glory Maple disease infections before they start, is that clearing away dead wood, and any debris as well as occasionally spraying with an organic fungicide, will save on stress for you and your October Glory Maple tree.

Common Pests of the October Glory Maple (Natural Pest Control for October Glory Maple)

There are categories of insects that only assault a specific section of a tree.

Some are specialists at boring into timber, others focus on the leaves, while others love to target anything fruity and juicy.

Close up of Red Maple tree with its branches and orange leaves in a forest.

(Image: Kboemig11)

If you’re able to recognize any of the intruders at a glance, it’ll help you to formulate a strategy to eliminate them before that particular part of your tree has been defoliated or damaged beyond repair.

1. Leaf Feeders

Larvae, worms, beetles, or spider mites either consume the leaves or deplete them of chlorophyll. The damage can go from being just an eyesore with a few chewed leaves on the edges to gaping holes that are a shock when first discovered.

Again, these insects come in different guises and do their best to stay under the radar, undetected, until your leaves become so dry that they fall away.

Severe defoliation can impair the health of the tree.

Here are a few pests to be aware of:

  • Bagworms
  • Maple leafcutter
  • Lantern flies
  • Green-striped maple worm
  • Asian long-horned beetle
  • Fall cankerworm

2. Sap Feeders

Considered more than a pest, these creatures pose a life-threatening danger to the life of the plant they have opted to assault. The sap is slowly drained from the leaves, from the trunk, and from the twigs as the often tiny insects can infest all levels of the tree.

A few of them have inbuilt natural protections against insecticides that make them hard to kill, while other species are vectors that infect plants with infectious pathogens.

  • Potato leafhoppers
  • Giant bark aphid
  • Woolly alder aphids
  • Calico scale
  • Gloomy scale
  • Cottony maple scale
  • Oystershell scales
  • Cottony cushion scale
  • Cottony camellia scale

3. Borers

Many borers winter in the soil near their intended victim and then get to work in the spring.5 Adult females tend to bore holes in the bark and lay eggs.

As they hatch, the larvae, completely unseen, riddle the tree with tunnels that will cause leaves to drop and the health of the tree to suffer.

The level of infestation will reflect how the tree responds to these unwelcome guests.

Generally, the only sign that they are present is the holes in the bark and perhaps a few of the adults shuffling around as if they haven’t a care in the world.

  • Carpenterworms
  • Twig pruners
  • Maple petiole borers
  • Maple shoot borer
  • Wood leopard moth

4. Galls

The tree’s vitality is unaffected by the outbreak of galls, despite the visual impact of a few leaves dropping off. They are tiny, about 2mm long, and are more unsightly to look at than dangerous to the tree, especially when there are a bunch of them gathered on one leaf.

When they reach a certain size, they can cause the infected leaves to “cup” and fall off before their time. Each gall is home to a solitary mite that lives there to eat and reproduce.

If the tree is still young all this activity can cause it to become stressed which is not good.

  • Felt galls
  • Maple bladder galls
  • Maple spindle galls
  • Maple eyespot gall
  • Gouty vein gall midge

Methods of removing or eliminating these pests range from manually picking them off, spraying them with jets of water to knock them off, or using an organic homemade insecticide.

The first step, however, is identifying which pest it is and then launching an effective and specific counter-attack to take them all down.

Companion Plants for Growing October Glory Maple

A low-maintenance ground cover, like a viburnum plant,7 is a fantastic companion plant that will shield the roots and decrease the need for mowing or pruning around the trunk

This plant is so beneficial because October Glory can be challenging to mow around due to its roots and thin bark. Any accidental damage can create an open wound for diseases to enter.

But be mindful that as your October Glory Maple Tree’s roots soak up copious amounts of water, the last thing you want to do is use companion plants that will compete for the same amount of water.

They ideally need to be comfortable being in the shade and drought tolerant.

If they can look good, increase the quality of the soil, and attract beneficial insects at the same time, all the better.

Any of these 10 will fit the bill nicely:

  • Columbine
  • Daffodils
  • Daylilies
  • Vinca Minor
  • Ferns
  • Tulips
  • Lily Of The Valley
  • Crocus
  • Coral Bells
  •  Hostas

Plants thrive together in a symbiotic ecosystem because they get along, and help each other out by drawing in important pollinators, providing shade and nutrients the other plant may be missing.

A prime example is the story of The Three Sisters – corn, beans, and squash. In this traditional planting method, the corn supports the pole beans, which provide the corn and squash with much-needed nitrogen. The squash’s leaves serve as mulch to keep the ground cool, control weed growth, and retain moisture – all together a perfect example of plant compatibility.

Another overlooked tactic is to move your plants around.

If you rotate your crops each season to balance nutrient consumption and replenishment in the soil, your garden will be healthier and more diverse.

By using crop rotation and companion planting together, you are allowing the plants to look after one another rather than you having to work your green fingers to the bone.

October Glory Maple Facts

Out of all the species of maple trees, the 3 that are the main producers of maple syrup are red, sugar, and black. In the U.S., the industry is valued at over $420 million, $515 million in Canada, and $1.8 bn globally.

Close up of October Glory Maple tree with some of its leaves turning orange during daytime.

(Image: Photo by David J. Stang14)

Foresters and syrup producers in Washington are tapping into their native maple trees in an effort to break into this lucrative market.6

Let’s see what other facts there are about the amazing Maple Tree.

  1. The oldest Maple Tree in Canada is the Comfort Tree which is 500 years old.
  2. This cultivated species can be pruned to be Bonsai size as well as growing up to 50 feet.
  3. Tennessee whiskey is made by filtering it through the Charcoal from the Maple Tree.
  4. The wood from October Glory and other maple trees is used to make violins, drums, and woodwind instruments, as well as the necks of electric guitars.
  5. One million seeds can be dispersed from just one October Glory Maple tree.

Medicinally, maple trees have been used to relieve inflammations and treat liver disease in Chinese alternative medicines. Visually, they are appreciated for their colorful foliage in the fall when the red luscious leaves are at their most vibrant before falling away.

And sometimes being the last is the best as displayed by the October Glory Maple Tree whose amazing leaves stay the longest, and are the last to fall.

Frequently Asked Questions About October Glory Maple Tree

How Much Sunlight Does October Glory Maple Need Each Day?

This tree needs 6-8 hours of direct sunlight every day.

When To Plant October Glory Maple for the Best Yield?

In the early part of spring or even in the fall are the best times to plant the October Glory Maple tree.

When Do October Glory Maple Leaves Turn Red?

The leaves turn red early In October.

Best Growing Conditions for October Glory Maple?

Allow the plant to get sufficient daily sunshine and ensure that the soil drains well.

What Is the Color of October Glory Maple Flower?

The flowers are red and quite small, yet stand out brilliantly against the green foliage in the spring.

Are the October Glory Maple Roots Invasive?

The roots are not invasive but they grow close to the surface and spread far and wide.2 Care needs to be taken when planting near pathways as they have been known to ruffle a few slabs every now and then.

How Much Carbon Does October Glory Maple Sequester?

How long does it take for a tree to grow as well as its age, can reflect on how much carbon dioxide it can capture. A mature October Glory Maple can sequester about 22 pounds of CO2 per year.

October Glory Maple Symbolism?

This tree symbolizes honor, longevity, wisdom, and abundance.

How Far Apart To Plant October Glory Maple?

Typically, maple trees are advised to be planted with a spacing of approximately 25 feet.


1Brazee, N. (2017, November). Tar Spot of Maple. UMass Extension Landscape, Nursery and Urban Forestry Program. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets/tar-spot-of-maple>

2City of Portland, Oregon. (2021, March 30). Tree Physiology Primer – All About Roots! Portland.gov. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://www.portland.gov/trees/get-involved/news/2021/3/30/tree-physiology-primer-all-about-roots>

3College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University. (2023). Deciduous. College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://www.csbsju.edu/outdooru/abbeyarboretum/landscape/plantsandwildlife/trees/deciduous>

4Welsh, D. F., & Janne, E. (2008, November). Follow Proper Pruning Techniques. Texas A&M Agrilife Extension. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/earthkind/landscape/proper-pruning-techniques/>

5Hahn, J. (2018). Maple petiole borer. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://extension.umn.edu/tree-and-shrub-insects/maple-petiole-borer#:~:text=A%20maple%20petiole%20borer%20(Caulocampus,to%20control%20maple%20petiole%20borers.>

6Holtz, J. (2023). How UW is helping to build a maple syrup industry in Western Washington. University of Washington. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://www.washington.edu/forwashington/maple-syrup-industry-in-washington/>

7Kluepfel, M., Polomski, R. F., Russ, K., & Williamson, J. (2021, January 25). Viburnum. Clemson Cooperative Extension Home & Garden Information Center. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheet/viburnum/>

8Ludgie. (2021). Whirlybirds, helicopters, and Maple seeds. Biomechanics in the wild. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://sites.nd.edu/biomechanics-in-the-wild/2021/04/07/whirlybirds-helicopters-and-maple-seeds/>

9North Carolina State University. (2023). Acer rubrum. NC State Extension. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/acer-rubrum/>

10Utah State University. (2023). Powdery Mildew. Utah Pests Extension. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://extension.usu.edu/pests/ipm/notes_orn/list-flowers/powdery-mildew>

11Kboemig. (CC0 1.0). Resized and Chaged Format. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fallbuffalo.jpg>

12Plant Image Library. (CC BY-SA 2.0). Resized and Changed Format. Flickr. Retrieved from <https://flickr.com/photos/138014579@N08/33236699351>

13HeungSoon. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/maple-seeds-fall-autumn-samara-6808150/>

14Acer rubrum October Glory 7zz Photo by David J. Stang. CC BY-SA 4.0 DEED | Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International. Resized and Changed Format. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Acer_rubrum_October_Glory_7zz.jpg>

15Field Maple – Acer campestre Photo by Björn S… / CC BY-SA 2.0 DEED | Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic. Resized and Changed Format. Flickr. Retrieved July 12, 2023, from <https://flickr.com/photos/40948266@N04/36906247833>

16Jerzy Opioła. (CC BY-SA 4.0). Resized and Changed Format. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anthracnose_on_blueberry_a1.jpg>

17Photo 221304697 Photo by Stephen James McWilliam / CC0 1.0 DEED | CC0 1.0 Universal. Resized and Changed Format. iNaturalist. Retrieved from <https://www.inaturalist.org/photos/221304697>