Net Metering Minnesota Solar Incentives: Tax Credits, Rebates for Solar Panels

Georgette Kilgore headshot, wearing 8 Billion Trees shirt with forest in the background.Written by Georgette Kilgore

Solar Panels | March 18, 2024

Woman collecting cash from state of Minnesota solar incentives which were used to reduce cost of solar panels in MN, such as rebates, net metering Minnesota, solar tax credit (ITL) with installed solar panels.

If you live in the North Star State, you may know that Minnesota solar incentives are designed to help you reduce the cost of solar panels in Minnesota, and help you tap in to green energy technology right now.

Minnesota may be famous all over for its lakes, but what you don’t know is that its solar market is also gradually growing, soon to be a country leader.

But what is the reason behind this? A lot.

From the lawmakers’ decision to adopt the IEEE standards to make net metering more accessible to the emphasis on solar community projects, to the stepping up of the major utility companies to reward their consumers for making the switch.

You, too, should not be left behind when the state is going solar. If you are contemplating it, read along to find out the various available Minnesota solar incentives, the cost of solar panels in Minnesota and the crucial connection between the two.

Solar Energy in Minnesota

Minnesota is probably more known for its lakes than its sunshine, with only about 195 sunny days.

Minneapolis (196) and St. Cloud (199) are some of the sunniest cities in the state, while Duluth (179) and International Falls (177) experience some of the lowest.

Map of the state of Minnesota with each county colored to show the daily peak sun hours in each Minnesota county ranging from 3.51 to 4.14 daily hours of sunlight.

But this doesn’t mean that it is over for the solar market in the state.

Solar Garden Minnesota and Solar City Minnesota are thriving, with more and more residents turning to solar power. You may wonder, what then drives the market?

The cost of solar panels in Minnesota is relatively lower than that of other states, and the energy bills are enough reason for someone to think of alternative power sources.

Solar power is not doing badly in the North Star State, and being number 16 in the nation is a testament. There is also a lot of room for growth and the Minnesota solar incentives are doing just the right job to make sure that the dream to convert fully to renewable energy becomes a reality in the near future.

More than 230,000 homes are currently using solar power and this is all thanks to having one of the best RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards).9 What the state does differently is that it mandates the utility companies to obtain a particular amount of power purely from renewable sources, and it has to be achieved on a specific date.

In a bid to avoid hefty fines, utilities have no other option but to provide enticing rebates for solar-powered homes.1 This may explain the massive growth of Minnesota community solar because companies have to make sure that they are not penalized.

It has worked so well for the state, which further goes to explain why panels are becoming increasingly popular in the region.

Cost of Solar Panels in Minnesota: How Much Are Solar Panels in Minnesota?

People are buying panels every single day, and if you want to join the list, your very first question may be, what is the cost of solar panels in Minnesota?10

You will be glad that it is not as expensive as in other states.

Graphics of cost of solar panel installation in Minnesota showing technicians installing a solar panel system on a house atop a cutout map of the state of Minnesota and the average cost at the bottom.

Installing a fully-functioning system, including all the required components and licensing costs, you will have to part with about $22,720, which is for a typical 8kW system.

To put this more in perspective, it means that you will pay, say, $2.84 for each and every watt you install. The bad news is that this is slightly higher than the national average which stands at $2.66 a watt.

But the difference is not that big, and you will find it interesting that you may actually end up spending way less than $20,000, depending on several factors.

Another thing to remember is that Minnesotans don’t use that much energy, and if you get down to the basics, you can survive with a small setup that is cheaper to install. Even so, the state has proven that it has several incentives and rebates, so don’t fret, you may not spend as much money as you think.

How Does Solar Panel Cost Calculator Minnesota Work?

It is expected that you would want a rough estimate of the installation. It only makes sense since it is a huge project that changes how your home runs forever.

So, what can you do to get these numbers, because otherwise, it would mean getting quotations from various companies and comparing them.

Eye level view of a residential property showing solar panel installation mounted on the roof of the garage detached from the main house absorbing sunlight that produce clean energy.

(Image: Michael Hicks20)

The closest you can come to a figure is through online cost calculators. These are some of the most convenient software that basically gives you the cost based on the details you enter.

Don’t worry, it is quite simple. It will ask you to enter data like your location, your average monthly bill, and any other information based on the system’s design.

This way, it will easily calculate the cost, how much you should be able to save, and how many solar panels you will need, all these will be based on the offers that you will likely get from the solar companies in your area.

What Are the Factors Affecting the Cost of Solar Panels in Minnesota?

Why are solar panels so expensive or are solar panels worth it in Minnesota? These are questions any prospective panel owner will ask.

While many are scared of taking the leap because the cost may seem overwhelming, it is probably a great time to tell you that it doesn’t have to be. For one, Minnesota has several incentives that significantly help lower costs.

Besides, the panels’ price may be unexpectedly low, considering certain factors. Take a look.

#1 The Number of Panels That You Need

Each household has specific power needs, which is why the utility bills are never the same. This also matters in panel installation because basically, the more power you need, the larger your system could potentially get.

And what does this mean? That if you have low energy needs, you will have to go for a smaller system which is good news because it will be cheaper.5

#2 The Brand Name and the Quality of the Products

This is probably self-explanatory. Brands produce different kinds of panels and the better quality they are, the more expensive they get.

If you want to save some cash, you may want to take quotations from various brands and compare, but note that this doesn’t mean that you go for the cheapest and most inefficient panels, remember that durability is also key.

#3 The Type of Installation

Before you plan on installing a solar system,11 you ought to know that there are other ways to set up panels, that is besides the traditional racking on the roof method. Sometimes your roof is too small, or damaged, such that it cannot accommodate all the panels you need.

In such cases, you will have to go for ground mounting. Bad news.

That is the most complex installation and is infamously more expensive because it takes the longest time and you will have to buy extra equipment.

Factors To Consider Before Buying Minnesota Solar Panels

It is understandable that you are now excited about the whole thing. Installing panels is now not only achievable but very affordable, right?

But not so fast. Regardless there are still some factors that you should take into consideration before you take the bold step to become a fully-fledged solar power user.

Residential house with solar panel installed on its roof shaded by the large canopy of the trees within its perimeter.

(Image: A Siegel21)

Number one, if you are looking to set up your panels on your roof, maybe consider their state first. These panels will probably be sitting on your house for more than two decades, but that will never happen unless the roof is solid enough to handle its brutal weight for the entire time.

You may, after all, have to incur additional costs of making roof repairs.

How they slope also matters, and many ignore this fact. You need your roof to be tilted at a 15-40 degree angle, otherwise, you will not be getting the most out of your panels.

Secondly, Minnesotans know that the state is not really the best when it comes to sunlight intensity. The region grapples with more snow than the sun in comparison to the national average and the only way to hack this is by going for the most powerful systems in the market and investing in a battery while you are at it.

Lastly, which is also important, is your HOA guidelines. Why?

Panel installation is a mega project and you probably want to work within HOA’s limits and rules, based on the sizing and other aspects; nobody wants to get in trouble, especially when it comes to such a delicate project.7

Minnesota Solar Incentives: Minnesota Solar Rebates

Imagine a state with very low energy needs. Not only that, a state that receives solar rebates from the government, the state, and the local utilities; sounds like a dream come true for every prospective solar owner.

You will be shocked by just how much money you will save and how fast it will take for the panels to pay for themselves.

Now down to the nitty-gritty, the following are the Minnesota solar incentives that make converting to renewable energy worth it.

Federal Solar Investment Tax Credit

Federal energy credits are definitely the game-changer when it comes to the solar market.12 All the states can’t stop raving about it, and it is easy to see why.

Not only is it the most impactful incentive in Minnesota, but it is also the first one that people go for from all the states in the country ever since the bill was signed.

What is it about, you ask? Well, if you install solar panels before the year 2032 ends, you are entitled to a 30% tax credit from the national government.

This 30% is against the total amount that you spent on purchasing your solar panels. The best part is that it means all the money you spent to buy the panels, wires, batteries, inverters, labor, permitting and virtually every single dime you spent on the entire project.

Screenshot of energystar.gov website for federal tax credits with yellow arrows pointing to information on how much savings can homeowners get when they opt for solar panel installation.

(Image: ENERGY STAR22)

Let’s say for instance, that you spent $20,000 for the whole thing, you are eligible to apply for 30% of that, which is $6,000 as your tax credit.2 So, next tax season, you will pay less taxes by $6,000 or have it as part of your tax return.

Who would pass out on that? Now imagine combining that with the other incentives, totally worth it.

Minnesota Net Metering

Another program that also goes on in other states is net metering, and it is also quite famous thanks to how much money you end up saving. What happens here is that the homeowners are allowed to link their solar systems to the grid.

The aim of the whole thing is to help the owners put their excess power supply to good use and get something from it while at it.

Basically, if your system produces more power than you need, which happens more often than not, you can send it all to the grid. In return, the utilities credit your “payment” to your next energy bill according to exactly how much you have generated for them.

All the utility companies in Minnesota have their own terms when it comes to how much they credit your bill. Some set a certain rate for all customers every month, while others opt to do it annually, and you can choose which one to go for.

According to the state’s net metering laws, the utilities are required to provide the program for all solar owners, as long as their capacity is lower than 40W, which is practically all residential systems because they range between 5-8 kW.

Energy Sales Tax Exemption Minnesota

Everybody knows how much sales taxes can increase the cost of products and by a huge margin at that. Thankfully, Minnesotans don’t have to worry about that one bit because the local government provides sales tax exemptions on solar power systems.13

These equipment are supposed to be charged around 6.88% in terms of sales taxes, and this applies to all solar lighting and heating systems.

Look at it this way, if the taxes were in effect, and you paid $22,720 on your setup, you would be liable to part with a whole $1,562, which is 6.8% of the total cost. This is a huge relief for the residents and it helps that all solar companies are aware of this; you will never find “sales tax” on your invoice, and in case you do, you should enquire about it because you shouldn’t be paying for it.

Property Tax Exemption

Another incentive from the government comes in this unique form of property tax exemption. It is common knowledge that solar panel installation is a home improvement project, probably the most expensive single one you will ever undertake.

In this right, it only makes sense that it will increase the value of your property.

What happens when your home’s value increases? The property tax is also supposed to drive up.

The good news is that this doesn’t apply to Minnesotans. No matter how much your home’s value increases after installing panels, you will still pay the exact same taxes, nothing will change.

If you calculate how much you will be saving all through the system’s service life, you could be talking about thousands or tens of thousands.

Local Minnesota Solar Incentives

On to even more exciting news, did you know that there are more solar incentives for various cities and from the major utility companies in Minnesota?

Map showing locations of solar plants in Minnesota using yellow markers and Minnesota solar panels with a US cut out showing the location of the state of Minnesota.

You can easily qualify for them based on your location, and your choice utility service and below are the several options that are available.

Austin Utilities

The homeowners in Austin are lucky that they can receive cashback on their solar water heating systems, and there are two options.

For the first one, you can get $500 in rebates or, instead, apply for $15 for each foot square you install, or in other words, you are eligible for up to $1,200 for the entire setup, which is quite a lot if you think about it.8

Minneapolis Green Cost Share

The people of Minneapolis are not left behind since the city also has something to offer them. The design behind it is that it offers help with financing your solar installation in a bid to promote the adoption of clean energy.

You can apply for it if you are part of a single-family by using group buy, or otherwise, go right ahead to apply independently as a multi-family unit, industrial building, or if part of community solar. These incentives vary based on various factors, but on minimum, you can receive $0.20 for every kWh you generate.

Rochester Public Utilities (RPU)

If you are living in the Rochester region,14 you can also receive a handsome reward for converting to solar power. This program offers up to $500 for each and every new solar system, as long as it is at least 2 kW in size.

This is welcome news since most setups in Minnesota are around 8kW, meaning that practically every homeowner can apply.

Chaska

Chaska City also joins that list of the most thoughtful and helpful in matters of solar rebates. Through the Chaska Solar Rebate Program, you will be able to receive $0.25 for each watt you have installed.

However, there is a maximum figure that a single customer can receive, because it is capped at $2,500.

Owatonna Public Utilities

This case is a bit different from the other rebates from other regions. There is no specific amount that is given out, but the Conserve and Save program from the City is basically a first-come-first-served kind of case, and the faster you apply, the higher your chances of getting it.

Dakota Electric Association

This utility company not only offers solar panel financing if you are a loyal customer but also gives a $500 rebate for a catch. This program is a commissioning rebate, which means that you can only get it if you have just bought your system and placed it under commission.

SolarSense Program

SolarSense also joins the list of rebate providers and can also be quite lucrative. Given that it is highly sought after, it offers rebates on a lottery basis and gives a time frame to apply.

If by chance you are picked, you will get $0.29 cents for every kWh of power that your system generates. This amount varies greatly for each recipient based on just how much your system is capable of producing.

However, you can expect $2,000 – $3,000 based on your energy usage. There is also a cap of $5,000 or 60% of the amount you used for the installation, whichever figure is cheaper.

Xcel Energy

Customers of Xcel Energy should definitely be a part of the Solar Rewards Program, and it doesn’t matter whether you are a homeowner or need it for your business. Thanks to this incentive, you can earn Renewable Energy Credits at the rate of $0.04 for every kWh your home generates or $0.03 for each kWh from your business.

You will be eligible for payout for ten years money which can be a huge boost to help pay back your panels.3 You may end up with anything from $500 in every year or roughly $5,000 all through the entire ten years, which is quite a lot.

Why Go Solar in Minnesota?

You can bet that your neighbors who have installed solar power are not complaining. Why would they when there are several upsides to using renewable energy?

Pie chart showing Minnesota renewable energy consumption including Minnesota wind energy, biomass energy, geothermal energy, hydroelectric energy and solar energy in the state of Minnesota for 2022.

The government is heavily funding the sector because of its perks like the ones below.15

  1. Reduced energy costs: One of the first reasons why there is a huge conversion rate in the state and in the country, for that matter, is because people want to get rid of their hefty utility bills that don’t seem to drop anytime soon. You can also save yourself by detaching from the traditional grid electricity system to having your very own power
  2. Increased home value: Does solar increase home value? Yes, and by as much as 4.1%, sometimes more, depending on the particular case.
    You can consider it a long-term investment, especially if you had any plans to resell and relocate.
  3. Cleaner energy: You should know by now that the carbon footprint solar panel emits is not as high as that of fuel since it doesn’t have as much GHG emissions. And still, if you are worried about the waste disposal of the old panels, know that there are various solar panel recycling companies around the state that safely handle them, ensuring that they don’t cause any harm.
  4. Increased job opportunities: The solar market is ever growing and it is expected that there will always be need for human resources skilled in various areas. Solar companies are always on the lookout to hire the best, and you can imagine just how much money the industry earns from the government.

The Federal Solar Tax Credit as One of the Best Minnesota Solar Incentives

The ITC is one the most highly-sought after rebate programs in Minnesota, if not the entire country. Given that the tax relief is set at 30% and the average cost of solar panels in Minnesota is $22,720, it means that you can use it to save around $6,800, which is a very huge boost.

It goes to show why it should be the first on your list when applying for a solar incentive.

But not so fast. It is important to know what you are getting into first because it can be quite a complicated process, such that other consumers hire tax experts to help.

First, know that this is not a cashback. Basically, what happens is that you get a tax credit that is deducted from the total amount that you owe in the form of taxes.

If the money you owe is still not 30%, the amount left can always roll over to the next tax season for up to 5 years maximum. It brings us to the next common question, how does the solar tax credit work if I don’t owe taxes?

Unfortunately, the answer is no. If you don’t owe any taxes, how else will you get tax relief?

You must be a tax paying citizen first, for you to receive the incentive or even apply for it.

Another common mistake that homeowners make is thinking that the incentive is given before the installation. Not really.

You have to first fully install the system and then apply for the incentive. This means that you will have to find ways to finance the project, whether it is cash upfront or solar loans.

Screenshot of IRS website for forms and instructions with yellow arrow pointing to Form 1040, U.S. Individual Income Tax Return.

(Image: Internal Revenue Service23)

To take the ITC in Minnesota, complete IRS Form 5695 with your standard Form 1040.19

Is There Specific Statewide Minnesota Solar Tax Credit?

Sadly, Minnesota currently doesn’t have a state solar tax credit. The only one that you can take advantage of is the federal solar tax credit that works in all states in the country,16 not specifically for Minnesota.

It is quite unfortunate because it is available in several other states and means much much more in terms of savings.

Imagine having 30% from the government and 25% from your state, what does that mean? A whole 55% off your solar installation cost.

This would have been a huge leg up for the Minnesotans, but it is still not in effect. But still, all is not lost.

You can always take advantage of the ITC, net metering, property and sales tax exemptions, and other local incentives from utilities in various cities.

How Does the Minnesota Power Payback Program Work?

Like in any other state, Minnesota also has power payback programs which are also quite instrumental in saving you money. So how do they work?

Utility companies offer payback to you as a solar power producer according to how much power your system generates. Obviously, the larger your setup, the more power you will produce and the more money you will earn.

How Does Net Metering MN Reduce the Cost of Solar Panels in Minnesota?

Minnesota’s net metering has been in effect for the longest time. It has been working since 1983, which obviously makes it one of the most ancient in terms of the laws of net metering in the country.4

As a resident, you are able to sign up for it through the utility company of your choice and receive credits in exchange for the excess power that you generate.

You may ask how this helps you reduce the cost of your panels. It is simple, the system is designed to help reduce or eliminate the cost of power from the electricity you use from the grid when your panels are not producing power, say at night.

If not, you would have had to buy the power from the company because your panels would not be working.

Also, think about the cash payout. This money that accumulates can go a long way to help you offset some part of the money that you used for the installation, reducing the payback period.

It is also important to remember that you have the option to go off-grid. If you have a battery that allows your system to generate power all through the day, whether it is night, cloudy, or raining, you don’t have to connect to the grid.

How Much Money Does Solar Panel Installation Save You in Minnesota?

If you are still not sure about installing solar panels, maybe this will convince you. You may just end up saving tens of thousands all through the life of your panels.

For starters, you successfully avoid electricity bills which you know by now how high they can get. Once you pay back your system, you can obtain power from the panels at virtually no cost, imagine avoiding utility bills for more than ten years.

The upfront costs should not even concern you because they are not as daunting, considering that you have Minnesota solar incentives to back you up.

Angled-shot of a residential house showing solar panels installed on its white roof with trees in the background.

(Image: Vivint Solar24)

For example, if you receive the federal solar tax credit, you will end up saving as much as $6,000, meaning that it will take a short time for the panels to pay for themselves. This does not even include all the other incentives from the state and local utilities.

How To Buy Solar Panels MN

If you have made up your mind that you want to buy solar panels, you also want to know how to go about financing them.17 The most obvious way to go is paying the cash upfront, but this may not work for everyone.

If you don’t have all the money, you can seek alternative ways like solar loans.

Financial institutions work hand in hand with solar companies to help you acquire the system and give you a payback period and favorable interests. However, if you are looking for even better rates, you can always go for home equity loans, but these are riskier because not paying may mean foreclosure.

Other homeowners also go for personal loans, but the disadvantage of these is that they often mean higher rates and short repayment periods. Alternatively, if you want to avoid loans altogether, the best way that you can go is solar leases.

The only problem is that the ownership remains with the solar company, and it goes without saying that you will be shut out of most rebate programs, especially the solar tax credit.6

How To Choose a Solar Power Company in Minnesota

The solar market in Minnesota is growing and thriving, and it is evident by the presence of plenty of companies in the state. It can be overwhelming, no doubt, especially for a first-timer, you wouldn’t know where to start or how to tell that you are making the right decision.

So where do you start? Seek recommendations from your family and friends.

If someone you know has completed their project, you can get a lot of insight from them, not only about the company but also about the cost and other necessary details.

You should never compromise when it comes to the quality of the service and the equipment, and that is why your best bet should be a reputable company that you are sure has been in the industry for long enough to acquire enough experience and learn all the ins and outs of the industry. But while at it, avoid the overly expensive and extremely cheap services because the goal is to save more money but still get value for your money.

Are There Free Solar Panels Minnesota?

Wouldn’t it be fascinating if you could search online for how to get solar panels for free and find several companies willing to offset all your installation costs? Sadly, this is only a dream for many households who find the upfront costs too high for them.

Panel production is a booming business that costs companies a fortune to make, and they have to sell them at a considerable rate to also make profits. This would be impossible if they gave out the panels for free.

So, there is absolutely no way you will find free panels, but before you lose hope, there is one program that comes close.

For little or zero costs, you can sign up for solar leasing and have the solar company set up the panels for you. But wait, there is a catch.

You have to pay a small fee at the end of the month. By doing so, you don’t have to worry about installation costs and the rate is significantly lower than the conventional utility bill, which is a win-win for you.

Screenshot of energy.gov website for solar energy technologies with yellow arrow pointing to Community Solar Basics.

(Image: U.S Department of Energy25)

Community solar programs are also very practical solutions for the households that cannot afford to buy the panels.18 You will only pay a small fee, the same thing with solar leasing and the best part is that it is cheaper and more manageable for low-income families.

What Are the Top Ranking Minnesota Solar Incentives?

Minnesota boasts of some of the most incentives provided by a state. It may not brag about any statewide solar tax credits, but all the local incentives are worth mentioning.

The robust and strict RPS goals take most of the credit because utilities do their part to ensure that they comply otherwise, they will be reprimanded.

The federal solar tax credit is at the top of the list of the best Minnesota solar incentives, all thanks to its very favorable terms, helping you save more money. Besides that, Xcel is also making waves in the state as one of the largest utilities and the one offering consumers more money for the solar power they generate.

Net metering is also highly sought after for those without back systems and want to go on-grid.

What Are the Best Minnesota Solar Incentives?

All Minnesota incentives have great perks for you, but some are more highly sought after than others. For instance, look at the national federal solar tax credit, which has more benefits, offering 30% off of the installation.

It is the one that most people apply for, although net metering and state property and tax exemptions are also excellent ways to save a lot of money. Not forgetting the local incentives from utility companies based in various cities.

Is Solar Panel Installation Cost Minnesota Worth It?

If you are worried about the investment you are about to make and are asking, are solar panel worth it in Minnesota, the answer is a definite yes, not just in Minnesota but also for the better part of the country. There are so many benefits that come with owning solar panels, not just for you as a homeowner, but also for the environment.

If the cost of solar panels in Minnesota is your main issue, remember that there are several Minnesota solar incentives that you can take advantage of. By the end of it all, you will be stunned by just how much you have been able to save.

And the best part is that the payback period of the panels reduces significantly, meaning more savings, in comparison to obtaining power from the grid.

As long as your panels are efficient and receive enough sunlight, this will be one of the best projects you can ever undertake for your home. Also, don’t forget that it helps increase the value of your home, all the while helping you save a lot of money in the process.

Eye level of cityscape of Minneapolis City, Minnesota, showing skyscrapers and partly cloudy blue sky on its background.

(Image: retzer_c26)

If you are living in Minnesota and are worried about your higher utility bills, there is a solution for you, try converting to solar power. Hundreds of thousands of homes have installed it and can attest to several benefits, from saving costs to being kinder to the environment.

You can say bye to the hefty utility bills and hello to cheaper and easily accessible power that you can use whenever you want. And the best part?

The state offers several incentives that help you reduce the upfront cost and increase how much money you save in the long run.

Hopefully, you now have all the information you need about how to get started with your conversion process.

You can give it a try now that you know how much Minnesota solar incentives have significantly helped reduce the cost of solar panels in Minnesota.

Frequently Asked Question About Minnesota Solar Incentives

What Factors Affect the Cost of Solar Panels in Minnesota?

Several factors come to play when determining how much money you will actually spend when installing your panels. What matters is your system size, or how much power you will need, the number of panels in use and their quality, the solar company you go for, and plenty of other factors.

Read More About Minnesota Solar Incentives


References

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4Matthews, L. (2022, November 11). Minnesota Solar Incentives & Tax Credits for 2023. LeafScore. Retrieved June 8, 2023, from <https://www.leafscore.com/solar-guide/benefits-of-going-solar/solar-rebates-and-incentives/Minnesota/#net-metering-in-Minnesota>

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7Smith, J. (2023, May 30). Minnesota Solar Incentives | 2023 Cost and Savings. SaveOnEnergy. Retrieved June 8, 2023, from <https://www.saveonenergy.com/solar-energy/Minnesota/>

8Zagame, K. (2023, May 31). 2023 Minnesota Solar Tax Credits, Rebates & Other Incentives. EcoWatch. Retrieved June 8, 2023, from <https://www.ecowatch.com/solar/incentives/mn>

9Minnesota Department of Commerce. (2023). Solar Energy for Homes Minnesotans can tap into solar energy. Minnesota Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://mn.gov/commerce/energy/solar-wind/solar-for-homes/>

10U.S. Energy Information Administration – EIA. (2021, July 16). Average U.S. construction costs for solar generation continued to fall in 2019. U.S. Energy Information Administration – EIA – Independent Statistics and Analysis. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=48736>

11Department of Energy. (2023). Planning a Home Solar Electric System. Department of Energy. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.energy.gov/energysaver/planning-home-solar-electric-system>

12Energy Star. (2022, December 30). Federal Income Tax Credits and Incentives for Energy Efficiency. Energy Star. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.energystar.gov/about/federal_tax_credits>

13Research Department of the Minnesota House of Representatives. (2005, December). Minnesota Statutes Promoting Renewable Sources of Electricity. Minnesota House of Representatives. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.house.mn.gov/hrd/pubs/ss/ssrnegst.pdf>

14Wikipedia. (2023, May 18). Rochester, Minnesota. Wikipedia. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rochester,_Minnesota>

15Department of Energy. (2022, July 14). Biden-Harris Administration Announces $56 Million to Advance U.S. Solar Manufacturing and Lower Energy Costs. Department of Energy. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.energy.gov/articles/biden-harris-administration-announces-56-million-advance-us-solar-manufacturing-and-lower>

16Department of Energy. (2023). Homeowner’s Guide to the Federal Tax Credit for Solar Photovoltaics. Department of Energy. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/homeowners-guide-federal-tax-credit-solar-photovoltaics>

17Department of Energy. (2021, August 17). Money Matters: How to Finance Your Rooftop Solar Energy System. Department of Energy. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/articles/money-matters-how-finance-your-rooftop-solar-energy-system>

18Department of Energy. (2023). Community Solar. Department of Energy. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.energy.gov/communitysolar/community-solar>

19IRS. (2023, February 17). About Form 5695, Residential Energy Credits | Internal Revenue Service. IRS. Retrieved June 9, 2023, from <https://www.irs.gov/forms-pubs/about-form-5695>

20dsc00313-adjusted Photo by Michael Hicks / Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Flickr <https://flic.kr/p/6fJ9YF>

21Solar on the roof Photo by A Siegel / Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Flickr <https://flic.kr/p/8k6eTr>

22energystar.gov. ENERGY STAR. Retrieved from <https://www.energystar.gov/about/federal_tax_credits>

23Internal Revenue Service. IRS. Retrieved from <https://www.irs.gov/forms-pubs/about-form-1040>

24Vivint Solar. Unsplash, Retrieved from <https://unsplash.com/photos/_-iCSVJcJD8>

25U.S Department of Energy. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Retrieved from <https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/community-solar-basics>

26retzer_c. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/photos/minneapolis-city-minnesota-1117362/>