# Best Angle for Solar Panels (& Direction): Every State & Zip (Azimuth Angle Calc)

Written by Georgette Kilgore

Solar Panels | April 1, 2024

Did you know that using the best angle for solar panels direction can increase the amount of electricity you’re able to generate?

It’s true.

Knowing the best angle for solar panels in every state and zip code ( also known as the Azimuth angle calculation) is the most accurate method to get the maximum amount of sunlight bouncing onto your brand new sparkling solar panels.

And it works, even if your roof is looking the wrong way or doesn’t have the perfect angle.

This complete guide examines the conditions that can hinder a solar panel’s efficiency and explains and how to make a solar panel maximize the amount of daylight hours you get, even if you live in areas where sunlight is limited, or the placement of the panels is not ideal.

## What Direction Should Solar Panels Face? (Best Direction Solar Panels)

The best direction has to be for the face of the solar panels to be staring directly toward the sun. Constantly. All day long.

Every single day of the year.

Under that perfect scenario, the full potential of the solar panels would be realized as they absorb all that the sun has to offer to harness all that energy, convert it into usable electricity, and power every appliance in your home.

(Image: mohamed_hassan10)

The rule of thumb worldwide is that if residing in the Southern hemisphere of the planet, solar panels should face true north. If located in the Northern hemisphere, solar panels should be facing the true south.

Now, even though that sounds easy, maybe self-explanatory, true north and true south refer to geographical locations, not magnetic directions. So which direction is best and how to calculate it from where you live?

Recent studies have indicated that the best direction for solar panels to face in the United States is between the south and west poles.

This is because as the sun rises and sets, it actually doesn’t cross what is known as the Tropic of Cancer, which means it doesn’t break the invisible line that separates the north and the southern hemisphere, preferring to stay in the south.

So now that facing south has been declared as the best direction for solar panel orientation,1 what about the best angle for solar panels or if your roof is facing the wrong way?

## Solar Panel Placement (Best Angle for Solar Panels and the Sun Path)

Experienced solar technicians have encountered every variety of rooftops and have had to install solar panels on many roofs that are facing every other direction apart from the south.

Rather than just throwing their hands up in defeat, they have adapted to a less-than-ideal situation by using solar mounting brackets to defy the natural direction of the rooftop.

(Image: Schipkeb11)

These brackets allow them to raise or change the direction of the solar panels so that they are facing south as much as possible. There are other useful variations that these brackets offer.

Because the pitch of the angled solar panels is just as important as the direction they are facing, these brackets can be mounted to alter the inclination of the roof to get the best angle for solar panels.

## Solar Panel Angle by Zip Code (Best Angle for Solar Panels Direction)

The best angle for solar panels is a placement between 30 – 45 degrees. If every house in the United States could achieve and maintain that tilt, the industry would be greatly simplified.

Unfortunately for the solar industry, the earth tilts, rotates, and has seasons. But even though harnessing 100% of the sun’s rays 100% of the time is an impossibility, some states get a higher percentage than others.

That difference can determine the types of solar panels suitable for your location, and the amount of energy absorbed, so it’s worth being aware of which angle of the state your house sits in.2

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Alabama 36830 35215 35242 36301 35758 36695 36116 36117 35405 36330 28.0° 28.6° 28.4° 27.2° 29.1° 27.0° 27.8° 27.9° 28.3° 27.3° Alaska 99502 99504 99507 99508 99515 99516 99577 99801 99654 99709 39.4° 39.4° 39.4° 39.4° 39.4° 39.3° 39.4° 38.4° 39.5° 40.7° Arizona 85326 85122 85225 85301 85308 85204 85008 85032 85033 85035 85041 85142 85281 85364 28.4° 28.2° 28.4° 28.5° 28.6° 28.4° 28.5° 28.5° 28.5° 28.5° 28.4° 28.3° 28.4° 28.1° Arkansas 72076 71854 72756 72762 71913 72401 72034 72764 72450 72712 29.2° 28.5° 29.9° 29.8° 29.0° 29.7° 29.2° 29.8° 28.7° 29.9°

(Image: Elf-Moondance15)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels California 91710 92324 91709 94501 91910 91911 92801 92804 92805 91702 93306 93307 93312 91706 95076 92780 95206 92404 92407 92105 92114 93257 91342 91977 92683 93274 94110 94112 94122 95608 94806 95111 95112 95123 95127 95823 95355 90640 90631 95828 92570 91730 90731 90660 94565 91343 92703 92376 92704 92707 95051 93905 93906 92503 95035 92504 94558 91761 91762 91950 92507 92647 90255 95630 92335 92336 95624 95758 94080 90250 94541 94544 95020 92509 91766 93065 95687 92880 92882 92627 94513 92592 91335 90001 94533 90003 90004 92345 92346 94536 94538 93722 93727 90706 93230 90006 90022 90026 92020 92021 91732 90037 92677 92630 94509 93291 91770 95747 93033 91331 95014 94015 90201 93550 91402 92553 92562 91744 92563 90262 90042 90044 90066 93535 92201 93536 90650 90280 94587 92115 92126 92154 92057 90011 90019 90805 28.7° 28.8° 28.7° 30.5° 28.0° 28.0° 28.7° 28.6° 28.6° 28.9° 29.4° 29.3° 29.4° 28.8° 30.1° 28.6° 30.6° 28.8° 28.8° 28.1° 28.1° 29.7° 28.9° 28.1° 28.6° 29.8° 30.5° 30.5° 30.5° 30.9° 30.6° 30.3° 30.3° 30.3° 30.4° 30.8° 30.5° 28.7° 28.7° 30.9° 28.6° 28.8° 28.6° 28.7° 30.6° 28.8° 28.6° 28.8° 28.6° 28.6° 30.3° 30.0° 30.1° 28.7° 30.4° 28.7° 30.8° 28.7° 28.8° 28.1° 28.7° 28.6° 28.7° 30.9° 28.8° 28.8° 30.8° 30.8° 30.5° 28.7° 30.5° 30.5° 30.2° 28.7° 28.7° 28.9° 30.8° 28.7° 28.7° 28.6° 30.6° 28.4° 28.8° 28.7° 30.8° 28.7° 28.8° 28.9° 28.8° 30.4° 30.4° 30.1° 30.1° 28.7° 29.8° 28.8° 28.7° 28.8° 30.1° 28.1° 28.8° 28.7° 28.5° 28.6° 30.6° 29.9° 28.8° 31.0° 28.8° 28.9° 30.3° 30.5° 28.7° 28.9° 28.8° 28.7° 28.5° 28.7° 28.5° 28.7° 28.8° 28.7° 28.7° 29.1° 28.6° 29.1° 28.7° 28.7° 30.5° 28.1° 28.2° 28.0° 28.4° 28.7° 28.8° 28.7° Colorado3 80634 80011 80219 80525 80229 80504 80013 80020 80015 80134 31.7° 31.4° 31.4° 31.8° 31.5° 31.6° 31.4° 31.5° 31.4° 31.3°

(Image: Afrndz16)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Connecticut 06516 06492 06810 06457 06606 06010 06902 06511 06484 06082 32.1° 32.2° 32.1° 32.2° 32.0° 32.2° 32.0° 32.1° 32.1° 32.4° Delaware 19805 19901 19720 19904 19709 19808 19702 19711 19713 19701 31.4° 31.2° 31.4° 31.2° 31.3° 31.4° 31.4° 31.4° 31.4° 31.4° Florida 34787 32825 32828 33157 33186 32244 33411 33064 34953 33012 33015 34711 32765 33463 33414 32210 32218 33025 33027 33311 33313 33511 33647 32808 32822 33125 33023 33024 33142 33458 25.7° 25.8° 25.8° 24.0° 24.1° 26.7° 24.7° 24.5° 25.0° 24.2° 24.2° 25.8° 25.9° 24.7° 24.7° 26.8° 26.9° 24.3° 24.3° 24.4° 24.4° 25.4° 25.6° 25.8° 25.8° 24.2° 24.3° 24.3° 24.2° 24.9°

(Image: Planet_fox17)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Georgia 30096 30101 30047 30004 30127 30040 30062 30188 31419 30041 30135 30022 30043 30281 30044 30058 30052 30263 30024 30331 30349 30906 28.7° 28.8° 28.7° 28.8° 28.7° 28.8° 28.7° 28.8° 27.7° 28.8° 28.6° 28.7° 28.7° 28.5° 28.7° 28.6° 28.4° 28.5° 28.8° 28.6° 28.5° 28.4° Hawaii 96792 96789 96797 96706 96734 96744 96720 96816 96817 96818 21.3° 21.3° 21.3° 21.2° 21.3° 21.3° 20.1° 21.2° 21.2° 21.2° Idaho 83704 83201 83854 83301 83642 83646 83686 83440 83709 83401 33.1° 32.8° 34.6° 32.5° 33.0° 33.1° 33.0° 33.1° 33.0° 33.0°

(Image: Chrischesneau18)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Illinois 60608 60804 60609 60614 60505 60617 60618 60619 60620 60623 60625 60628 60629 60632 60634 60638 60639 60640 60641 60647 60651 60657 60085 60402 60073 60016 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.4° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.4° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.4° 32.3° 32.3° 32.4° 32.4° 32.3° 32.3° 32.4° 32.5° 32.3° 32.5° 32.4° Indiana 47906 46360 47374 46307 47150 46226 46227 47130 46350 46143 31.7° 32.3° 31.5° 32.1° 30.8° 31.5° 31.4° 30.8° 32.2° 31.4° Iowa 50613 50315 50317 52302 52402 51501 51503 52001 52404 52722 32.6° 32.2° 32.2° 32.4° 32.4° 32.1° 32.1° 32.6° 32.4° 32.2°

(Image: Ecoenergiafutura19)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Kansas 67212 66212 66061 66062 66502 66614 67217 67401 67846 66048 30.5° 31.1° 31.0° 31.0° 31.1° 31.1° 30.5° 31.0° 30.7° 31.2° Kentucky4 42101 40475 41042 40601 40356 40324 42701 40214 40216 42301 30.2° 30.5° 31.1° 30.8° 30.6° 30.8° 30.5° 30.7° 30.7° 30.5° Lousiana 70301 70072 70560 70065 70816 70056 70003 70506 70726 70058 26.5° 26.5° 26.6° 26.2° 26.9° 26.6° 26.6° 26.7° 26.8° 26.6° Maine 04240 04901 04210 04106 04103 04330 04005 04401 04074 04011 33.2° 33.4° 33.2° 33.1° 33.1° 33.3° 33.0° 33.5° 33.0° 33.2° Maryland 20878 20904 21234 21122 21740 21222 21117 20906 21215 20874 31.1° 31.1° 31.3° 31.1° 31.4° 31.2° 31.3° 31.1° 31.2° 31.1°

(Image: Blazejosh20)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Massachusetts 02301 01960 02148 01201 02360 02169 02151 02780 01844 02155 32.4° 32.6° 32.6° 32.6° 32.3° 32.5° 32.6° 32.3° 32.7° 32.6° Michigan 48187 48180 48439 48228 48185 48197 48103 48044 48126 48823 32.5° 32.5° 32.8° 32.5° 32.5° 32.5° 32.5° 32.7° 32.5° 32.7° Minnesota 55379 55303 55125 56001 55337 55106 55124 55901 55304 55044 33.5° 33.7° 33.6° 33.2° 33.5° 33.6° 33.5° 33.2° 33.7° 33.5° Mississippi 38671 39564 39401 39402 39047 38655 39110 39759 39503 38654 29.2° 26.8° 27.3° 27.3° 27.9° 28.9° 28.0° 28.5° 26.9° 29.2° Missouri 63021 63136 63376 63366 63031 65202 65807 63123 63129 65203 30.9° 31.0° 31.0° 31.0° 31.0° 31.1° 30.3° 30.9° 30.8° 31.1°

(Image: Dimitrisvetsikas196921)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Montana 59701 59601 59101 59102 59715 59718 59901 59405 59105 59801 34.0° 34.2° 33.8° 33.9° 33.9° 33.8° 34.8° 34.5° 33.9° 34.3° Nebraska 68701 68123 68104 68516 68521 68025 69101 68801 68107 68134 32.4° 32.0° 32.1° 31.8° 31.9° 32.1° 32.1° 31.9° 32.1° 32.1° Nevada 89117 89121 89123 89129 89052 89108 89030 89031 89110 89115 29.8° 29.8° 29.7° 29.8° 29.7° 29.8° 29.8° 29.8° 29.8° 29.9° New Hampshire 03079 03102 03060 03062 03301 03820 03038 03054 03103 03104 32.7° 32.8° 32.7° 32.7° 32.9° 32.9° 32.8° 32.7° 32.8° 32.8° New Jersey 07305 07002 07055 07087 08701 08527 08753 07093 07728 07047 31.8° 31.8° 31.9° 31.9° 31.6° 31.6° 31.5° 31.9° 31.6° 31.9°

(Image: MinkS22)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels New Mexico 87105 87111 87112 88101 87124 87507 87114 87120 87121 87123 29.2° 29.3° 29.3° 29.0° 29.3° 29.5° 29.3° 29.3° 29.3° 29.2° New York5 10977 11706 10456 10457 10458 11377 11368 11717 11375 10312 10314 10460 10462 10463 10466 11691 10467 11373 10701 11385 10468 10469 10472 11355 11746 10473 11201 11203 11204 11206 11207 14850 11372 11208 11209 11210 10027 10029 11211 11212 11213 11214 11215 11218 11219 10031 10032 10128 11220 11221 11432 11434 11435 11223 11226 11229 11230 11233 10002 10023 10025 11234 11235 11236 32.0° 31.8° 31.9° 31.9° 31.9° 31.8° 31.9° 31.9° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.9° 31.9° 31.9° 31.9° 31.8° 31.9° 31.8° 31.9° 31.8° 31.9° 31.9° 31.9° 31.9° 31.9° 31.9° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.6° 31.9° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.9° 31.9° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.9° 31.9° 31.9° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8° 31.9° 31.9° 31.8° 31.8° 31.8°

(Image: Dimitrisvetsikas196923)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels North Carolina 28173 27587 27406 28078 27610 28027 27858 28215 28269 28277 28314 29.2° 29.7° 29.7° 29.4° 29.6° 29.4° 29.5° 29.3° 29.4° 29.3° 29.3° North Dakota 58501 58554 58503 58102 58103 58104 58701 58078 58504 58201 34.3° 34.3° 34.3° 34.3° 34.3° 34.3° 34.8° 34.3° 34.3° 34.7° Ohio 43081 43026 43123 44035 43130 43055 44256 43230 44060 45011 31.6° 31.5° 31.5° 32.1° 31.4° 31.6° 32.0° 31.5° 32.3° 31.3° Oklahoma 73099 74133 73071 73072 73013 73160 73034 74012 73505 74055 29.5° 29.7° 29.3° 29.3° 29.5° 29.4° 29.6° 29.7° 29.0° 29.8° Oregon 97045 97301 97006 97701 97124 97206 97223 97229 97007 97402 33.7° 33.6° 33.8° 33.2° 33.8° 33.8° 33.8° 33.8° 33.8° 33.2°

(Image: Atimedia24)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Pennsylvania 19020 19111 19120 19124 17603 19446 19134 19143 19149 15601 31.6° 31.6° 31.5° 31.5° 31.5° 31.6° 31.5° 31.5° 31.5° 31.7° Rhode Island 02895 02886 02860 02904 02908 02909 02816 02920 02864 02893 32.4° 32.2° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.3° 32.4° 32.3° South Carolina 29730 29732 29072 29223 29229 29445 29483 29485 29681 29720 29.2° 29.2° 28.7° 28.8° 28.8° 28.2° 28.3° 28.2° 29.1° 29.1° South Dakota 57401 57201 57103 57104 57701 57702 57105 57106 57108 57006 33.8° 33.6° 33.0° 33.0° 33.3° 33.2° 33.0° 33.0° 33.0° 33.3° Tennessee 38401 37013 37167 37129 37130 37211 37064 37042 37027 37075 29.5° 29.7° 29.7° 29.7° 29.7° 29.7° 29.7° 30.0° 29.7° 29.9°

(Image: Michaelyeoman25)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Texas 78520 78521 77429 77433 75211 78045 78046 75067 75150 77407 78641 77459 76137 77449 77450 77494 76244 78130 78501 76179 75052 77479 77573 75217 78228 78572 78574 76063 75068 78240 78245 78660 78577 77584 78249 78250 78251 78254 76010 75227 77036 77072 77373 77379 78666 77840 77845 75002 77077 78596 75070 77083 77084 77095 77346 75056 78640 75228 75243 79912 75040 75043 75034 75035 79924 79936 79938 76028 78613 78542 78745 78753 77521 78664 24.3° 24.3° 26.6° 26.6° 28.1° 25.4° 25.1° 28.2° 28.1° 26.4° 26.9° 26.3° 28.1° 26.5° 26.5° 26.5° 28.2° 26.5° 24.4° 28.2° 28.1° 26.4° 26.3° 28.1° 26.3° 24.4° 24.5° 28.0° 28.3° 26.4° 26.3° 26.9° 24.4° 26.4° 26.4° 26.3° 26.3° 26.4° 28.1° 28.1° 26.5° 26.5° 26.7° 26.6° 26.6° 27.0° 26.9° 28.3° 26.5° 24.4° 28.1° 26.5° 26.5° 26.6° 26.6° 28.3° 26.6° 28.1° 28.2° 27.6° 28.2° 28.1° 28.3° 28.3° 27.6° 27.6° 27.6° 28.0° 26.9° 24.5° 26.7° 26.8° 26.5° 26.9° Utah6 84074 84118 84404 84010 84119 84043 84120 84041 84015 84095 31.8° 31.8° 32.1° 31.9° 31.8° 31.7° 31.8° 32.0° 32.0° 31.8°

(Image: 1201926)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels Vermont 05201 05403 05401 05478 05641 05446 05701 05468 05301 05452 32.7° 33.4° 33.4° 33.5° 33.3° 33.4° 33.0° 33.5° 32.7° 33.4° Virginia 20147 22191 22192 22030 23452 23454 23322 22407 23462 23464 22193 22003 31.1° 30.9° 30.9° 31.0° 30.1° 30.1° 30.0° 30.8° 30.1° 30.1° 30.9° 31.0° Washington 98682 99301 98023 99208 98632 99336 98012 98034 98208 98052 20001 20016 20009 20002 20010 20019 20020 20011 20032 20008 33.9° 34.1° 34.5° 34.7° 34.0° 34.1° 34.7° 34.6° 34.7° 34.6° 31.1° 31.1° 31.1° 31.0° 31.1° 31.0° 31.0° 31.1° 31.0° 31.1°

(Image: StockSnap27)

 State Zip Codes Best Angle for Panels West Virginia 26003 26062 25177 26101 25701 25801 26505 26508 26301 26554 31.6° 31.7° 30.8° 31.2° 30.8° 30.5° 31.4° 31.3° 31.2° 31.3° Wisconsin 53511 54601 53204 53209 53215 53081 53704 53711 54956 54703 32.6° 33.1° 32.8° 32.8° 32.8° 33.1° 32.9° 32.8° 33.3° 33.5° Wyoming 82601 82604 82801 82001 82070 82716 82718 82901 82007 82009 32.8° 32.7° 32.1° 32.0° 32.1° 33.4° 33.3° 32.1° 32.0° 32.1°

As the seasons change, so does the angle of the sun and the solar panel tilt can vary considerably in some states.

(Image: Epicantus12)

For instance, the worst to the best angle for solar panels in Colorado can range from a low angle of 16° to a high of 46° throughout the year.

Such a wide degree of variation can impact the efficiency of your solar panels.

To offset that, investing in a solar tracker is recommended to follow the journey of the sun across the sky to get the best angle for solar panels in winter and capture the majority of the sunlight available.

And to get a very accurate reading for your exact location, go online and consult a solar power calculator by zip code.

## Azimuth Angle: Azimuth Calculator (Sun Angle Calculator or Solar Angle Calculator)

The Azimuth angle is the angle between a celestial body, the sun, for example, and due North, as measured counterclockwise around its horizon.

In this instance, the sun’s orientation in the sky would be stated as being at 0°, with the angles for east, south, and west having angles based on the sun’s angle of 0°, therefore being 90°, 180°, and 270° respectively.

(Image: Atimedia13)

Once you are able to recognize when the sun is at the Azimuth angle of 0°, it will be possible to know the direction of the other poles. When installing solar panels, knowing this solar angle calculator trick can save a lot of time when calculating the best angle for solar panels.

In an effort to find that perfect angle, it is important to understand how to find true north and true south, both of which are different from north and south magnetic readings. Start by using an online calculator such as the NOAA government’s solar calculator to glean what your declination might be by inputting your longitude and latitude, bearing in mind that for every 15° the sun will have moved 1 hour.7

But rather than move your solar panel setup every hour follow the instructions below.

• Tilt your panels at 15° less than the 0° position in the summer.
• In winter, increase the tilt from 0° to 15°.
• When fall arrives, the panels can again be set at 0°.

This adjustment may not seem significant but it will enable your panels to receive an extra boost of sunlight in those winter and summer months, a useful energy boost for extra heat in the winter, or for turning on the ac in the summer to keep cool, and also to make them more efficient.8

### Do Solar Panels Work on Cloudy Days? Best Angle for Solar Panels

To those asking, do solar panels work on cloudy days?

Although solar panels do not work at the peak of their capacity on cloudy days, they do still absorb the sun’s rays.

(Image: Jaidee14)

By calculating the longitude and latitude of your location you can adjust the angle of your solar panels so they can harness the maximum watts of energy available for better energy outputs.9

It cannot be overstated that getting a consistent energy output starts with maintaining the best angle for solar panels & direction: every state & zip (Azimuth angle calc).

## What Direction Should Solar Panels Face in the Southern Hemisphere?

In the southern hemisphere, solar panels should be facing true north.

## What Direction Should Solar Panels Face in Texas?

South is the ideal direction that solar panels should be facing in Texas.

## What Is the Optimal Angle for Solar Panels? What Is the Best Roof Angle for Solar Panels?

Between 30 – 45 degrees are the best angle for solar panels. But also to get your solar panel operating at peak capacity it is imperative to know how to clean solar panels to clear away any obstructions between the cells and the precious sunlight.

## How Big of Solar System Do I Need?

Factors such as your monthly electricity usage, location, the size of your home, the size of standard solar panel you select, and the size and pitch of your roof would determine if you would need 10 solar panels, or 20. Consulting a solar panel size chart would help enormously.

## What Is Solar Noon, Sun Altitude, and Solar Zenith Angle?

No matter in which country the sun is noticed at its zenith, it is classed as being in the noon position when it is due south geographically of that location. This is not to be mistaken with the sun’s altitude or the angle between the sun and the vertical line of the rays contacting the earth’s surface.

## References

1Solar Energy Technologies Office. (2023). Homeowner’s Guide to Going Solar. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Retrieved March 15, 2023, from <https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/homeowners-guide-going-solar>

2U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2019, June 12). Southwestern states have better solar resources and higher solar PV capacity factors. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 15, 2023, from <https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=39832>

4U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2022, November 10). State Electricity Profiles. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 15, 2023, from <https://www.eia.gov/electricity/state/kentucky/>

5U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2022, November 10). New York Electricity Profile 2021. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 15, 2023, from <https://www.eia.gov/electricity/state/newyork/>

6U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2022, November 10). Utah Electricity Profile 2021. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 15, 2023, from <https://www.eia.gov/electricity/state/utah/>

7Global Monitoring Laboratory. (2023). NOAA Solar Calculator. Global Monitoring Laboratory. Retrieved March 15, 2023, from <https://gml.noaa.gov/grad/solcalc/>

8Binghamton University. (2017, April 18). Adjusting solar panel angles a few times a year makes them more efficient. Binghamton University – State University of New York. Retrieved March 15, 2023, from <https://www.binghamton.edu/news/story/528/adjusting-solar-panel-angles-a-few-times-a-year-makes-them-more-efficient>

9NREL. (2023). PVWatts® Calculator. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved March 15, 2023, from <https://pvwatts.nrel.gov/pvwatts.php>