Marigold Flowers: Benefits, Facts, How To Grow Marigolds, Colors, Care Tips

Georgette Kilgore headshot, wearing 8 Billion Trees shirt with forest in the background.Written by Georgette Kilgore

Gardening | April 2, 2024

Woman in a field holding marigold flowers wonders how to identify marigolds, benefits and facts about marigold plants, and how to grow marigolds from marigold seeds.

If you love flowers, you may have considered growing Marigold flowers for a number of reasons.

In addition to being a great landscaping flower, Marigolds have a number of benefits, even keeping pests from flower beds and gardens.

Marigold flowers are popular for their bright colors and strong odor. They are easy to grow and often planted as companion plants to deter pests from infesting vegetable gardens.

Moreover, they have been used in traditional medicine for centuries thanks to their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antiseptic properties.1

These flowers are very significant in Mexican, Indian and other cultures worldwide. They are often used in ceremonies and celebrations such as the Day of the Dead and Diwali.

If you want to add this beauty to your space, you might wonder how to grow them and which variety is best.

This guide explains everything you ever wanted to know about how to plant and grow Marigold flowers, and provides some care tips, options, ideas and facts about this versatile plant that you may not know.

Marigold Flowers: What Is a Marigold Plant?

Marigold Flowers are flowering plants that belong to the genus Tagetes and the daisy family. The family is also called Aster, Asteraceae or composite.

They are native to Central America and southern North America. There are about 50 species of Marigold.5

Most of them are annuals, but a few perennials also exist.


(Tagetes spp.)

Marigold Flower in an oval frame on a green background.
  • Family: Daisy
  • Genus: Tagetes
  • Leaf: Marigold leaves are usually dark green. They are slightly serrated, and their shape can vary from lanceolate to deeply divided. They usually emit an odor when crushed.
  • Seed: Marigold seeds are small, elongated and look like small sticks. They have a black or brown bottom and a whitish to light yellow top.
  • Blossoms: Marigold Flowers differ in color and shape depending on the species. They can be yellow, orange, gold, red, cream or white. The African Marigolds have large pom-pom-like blooms, while French Marigolds produce smaller, daisy-like flowers.
  • Native Habitat: Marigolds are natives of Southern North America and Central America. They grow in various habitats, including open grasslands, tropical and subtropical regions.
  • Height: Height varies with species. They range from 6 inches to 3 feet tall.
  • Canopy: Multiple stems branch out from the base of the plant to create a lush canopy of leaves and flowers. On average, Marigold plants spread to about 6 to 18 inches for smaller varieties and up to 2 feet for larger varieties.
  • Type: Herbaceous, annuals, but some perennials also exist.
  • Native Growing Zone: USDA zones 2-11

While Marigold refers to flowers in the genus Tagetes, other species also go by the same name. For instance, Pot or English Marigolds belong to the genus Calendula and are natives of Southern Europe.

Nonetheless, they are ideal companion plants, especially the ones with yellow and pink flowers, because their growing conditions are similar.

Marigold Flower Facts and Symbolism

If you have been to Mexican or Indian celebrations, you must have seen them use Marigold Flowers. But these two communities are not the only ones that love these flowers.

In terms of Marigold Flower facts, these blooms are grown worldwide. So, is there any meaning to growing or using Marigold plants and flowers?

Marigold Flower Symbolism

Marigold Flowers symbolize different things in different cultures.

Graphic of Marigold showing its native growing zones, symbolism in India, Mexico China and Ancient Egypt, along with key facts and plant benefits.

From purity to death, here are some of the meanings of these flowers in different cultures.

  1. Indian culture: No wedding or religious celebration is complete in India without Marigold Flowers. They believe that the strong odor keeps away negativity and evil spirits.
    They also refer to it as “the flower of the sun” representing happiness, creativity, brightness, positive energy, success, and passion.
  2. Mexico: Marigolds are called Cempasuchil or Flor de Muerto (flower of the dead) and are significant during the Day of the Dead celebrations. They are used to decorate ‘ofrendas’ or altars of the dead to guide the spirits of the dead home.
  3. China: They are widely used during the Chinese new year celebration to attract good fortune and prosperity. They are also used in weddings as they are linked to love and passion.
  4. Ancient Egypt and Greece: Marigolds are associated with healing and restoration due to their medicinal properties.

Marigold Flower Facts

Here are some facts for Marigold Flower:

  1. Marigold Flowers are natural pest repellent.
  2. Marigold plants are full of health benefits. They have anti-fungal, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties.
  3. Marigold Flowers can be used as a natural dye for fabrics and textiles.
  4. Some varieties of Marigold Flowers are edible. They can be eaten raw, blanched, fresh and dry.
  5. Marigold is a contraction of the phrase Mary’s gold. The flowers honor Virgin Mary for her dedication and for offering her gold coins to the poor.

Marigold Plants Benefits

Below are some of the key benefits of Marigold plants:

  • Pest control: Marigolds are excellent companion plants. Thanks to their pungent smell, they are planted in vegetable gardens to deter pests.
  • Medicinal uses: Marigold Flowers have been used for centuries in traditional medicine. They have compounds with anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties.
  • Culinary uses: Some Marigold varieties are edible. They are added to salads, soups and other dishes.
  • Aesthetics uses: Marigold blooms are beautiful and will enhance any garden. They make excellent cut flowers.

Types of Marigolds

Marigold Flowers are easy to grow and maintain, making them ideal for both experienced and novice gardeners. There are over 50 types of Marigolds, but French, African, and Signet Marigolds are the most popular.

So, if you are wondering which variety to plant,9 check out these ideas.

1. African Marigold, America Marigold or Mexican Marigold

(Tagetes erecta)

Tagetes erecta is the tallest Marigold,6 growing to a height of up to 4 feet. Despite their name, they are not natives of the African continent, but of Mexico and Guatemala.

Detailed view of yellow and orange Marigolds, highlighting the American Marigold's notably large bloom.

(Image: SilviaEmilie12)

They produce large, pom-pom-like blooms with colors ranging from yellow, gold, orange and rust. The leaves are dark green, sturdy and more upright.

They are often used for landscaping because of their height. Moreover, they are a popular cut flower.

Some of the Mexican Marigold cultivars include:

  • Gold Coin: Blooms are usually showy in orange, yellow and gold
  • Inca Primrose: Round, double and bright yellow blooms
  • Double Eagle: Double orange and yellow flowers
  • Sweet cream: Ball-shaped flowers ranging from white to cream with bright yellow highlights on the top part of the bloom
  • Discovery: Ball-like tighter flower head that is orange, yellow, and mixed
Close-up view of a French Marigold flower featuring its compact design, with a yellow center and red outer petals.

(Image: s-ms_198913)

2. French Marigold

(Tagetes patula)

French Marigolds are shorter than African Marigolds, growing to a height of 12 to 18 inches tall. They have lacy and fern-like leaves with a compact growth habit.

Their size makes them perfect for edging, bedding, and container growth.

Moreover, they have daisy-like blossoms, which can be red, orange, yellow or mixed.

Here are some French Marigold varieties:

  • Golden Boy: Single or double golden to orange flowers
  • Bonita Mixed: Brilliant yellow and orange blooms
  • Alumia Vanilla Cream: Pale yellow blooms
  • Bonanza Deep Orange: Double-crested deep orange blooms
  • Brocade Mix: Disarranged double flowers of mixed colors from rust, orange, yellow and red

3. Signet Marigolds

(Tagetes tenuifolia)

Signet Marigolds are the smallest among the three varieties. They grow to a height of 6 to 12 inches with finely divided feathery leaves.

Their blooms are small, single flowers of only one inch with yellow and gold shades. Their leaves and flowers are edible.

Signet Marigold flowers displaying yellow-orange petals, accompanied by still-emerging green buds and a bee perched on one of the blooms.

(Image: Nennieinszweidrei14)

Here are some signet Marigold’s cultivars:

  • Starfire: Orange, yellow, gold and bi-color
  • Red Gem: Single dark red blooms
  • Tangerine Gem: Single yellow flowers
  • Lemon Gem: Single yellow blooms

How To Identify Marigold Flower

Calendula is one of the common plants people usually confuse with Marigolds.

This could be because they are both Daisy family members and have similar growing conditions.

Graphic of Marigold flower identification showing Marigold seeds, Margigold flower and Marigold leaves images on a round green border frame.

In fact they are often grown together. Regarding how to identify Marigold Flower, what are the key features to focus on, in this case, the Tagetes?

Look out for the following characteristics:

Marigold Flower Leaves

Marigold Flower leaves are dark green and slightly serrated, with small teeth along the edges. They are usually arranged alternately along the stem.

Marigold Flowers (What Are Marigold Colors)

Marigold Flowers differ in shape and color depending on the species. The flowers come in a range of Marigold colors, including yellow, orange, red, white, cream, gold and sometimes a combination of colors.

The shape can be daisy-like, with petals spreading out from the central disk or a full-rounded pom-pom.

Marigold Flower Seeds

The Marigold Flower seeds are small, elongated and looks like a rice grain or tiny stick. They have a rough, textured surface.

Moreover, depending on the species, they have brown or black bottoms and light colors on the top.

Marigold Flower Scent

Marigold Flowers have a strong odor which can be slightly spicy or pungent.

People who have smelled the plant before can identify it by its smell even without seeing it. The scent may slightly differ for different types of flowers.

Planting Marigolds: Planting Marigold Seeds and Marigold Seedlings

Planting Marigold seedlings is straightforward, especially if you live in a tropical or semi-tropical area: Marigold hates the cold. These flowers can be grown from seeds, seedlings or cuttings.

Growing a Marigold Flower From a Seed (How To Grow Marigold From Dried Flowers)

Planting Marigold seeds is the cheapest way to grow Marigold Flowers. Marigolds are annuals; they bloom for one season before dying.

When it comes to growing a Marigold Flower from a seed, these plants naturally drop seeds before dying, which then sprout in the following season. While self-seeding is an effective method to ensure continuity, it might not be the best option if you want a diverse garden with different types of flowers.

Graphic of Marigold flower growth chart showing its progression from its initial height of 3-6 inches in the first week to reaching a flowering stage at a height of 26-36 inches by the fourth week.

Towards the end of the Marigold blooming season, they produce achenes. It’s important to note that Marigolds produce flowers throughout the growing season.

This means the same plant will have faded flowers and new blooms at the same time. This is why you need to deadhead, but this topic is discussed below in detail.

When considering how to grow Marigold from dried flowers, first collect seeds from the dried blooms. Learn how to dry Marigold Flowers before planting below:

  • Cut the flower heads once dry.
  • Pull the flower head apart, remove the seed, and place them on a paper towel.
  • Spread the seeds and allow them to air dry for a week.
  • Store the seeds in an envelope, and remember to label them if you have various varieties.

How To Plant Marigold Seeds

Marigold seeds are easy to grow.3 They can be started indoors or sowed directly in the garden.

So, if your area has a shorter growing season, you can start the seeds indoors to enjoy a long blooming period. This is also important if you’re growing a cultivar like the African Marigold that takes longer to mature.

To start seeds indoors, sow them 4 to 8 weeks before the last frost. To plant Marigolds in garden, sow them a week after the last frost.

This is how to plant Marigold seeds:

  • Ensure the seeds are dry.
  • Choose a place in full sun.
  • Prepare the ground or where you want to sow the seeds. Add compost or well-rotted manure.
  • Sow the seeds 1/4 inch deep and cover them with a thin layer of soil.
  • Space the seeds 6-12 inches apart, depending on how big that variety grows.
  • Water the seeds sufficiently, but gently and continue to water daily until the seeds germinate.
  • The seeds will germinate in 4 to 10 days.

Growing a Marigold Flower From a Seedling

If you’re interested in growing a Marigold Flower from a seedling, you can buy seedlings from a local nursery if you don’t have seeds. And if you started your seeds indoors, you need to plant the seedlings outside because Marigold Flowers prefer full sun.

Close-up view of Marigold seedlings with its green leaves and red stems emerging from dark soil.

(Image: Beyond silence11)

Keep in mind that you should plant the seedlings outside only after the last frost. However, you’ll need to harden them before planting Marigolds outside by placing them in a shaded location for a week, gradually exposing them to direct sunlight and wind.

So, how do you plant seedlings?

  • Prepare ground on a sunny spot and add compost.
  • Dig holes around 1-inch dip and space 6 to 12 inches apart.
  • Put each seedling inside and cover the roots with soil.
  • Water the seedlings and continue to water them daily for the first week.
  • After establishing, water thoroughly once a week.

Growing a Marigold Flower From a Cutting

If you want to avoid the hustle of harvesting seeds or buying seedlings, planting cuttings is another option. In fact, Marigold Flowers grown from cuttings tend to be healthier and last longer.

Here’s a guide on growing a Marigold Flower from a cutting:

  • Mix equal amounts of sand, soil and compost in a pot.
  • Put some rooting hormone in a different container.
  • Using sharp scissors, cut 4-inch long stem sections. Remember to cut from softwood stems that are not flowering.
  • Remove all leaves, leaving two to four top leaves.
  • Create planting holes that are 2 inches deep.
  • Dip the cutting base in rooting hormone and plant in the holes.
  • Water the cuttings and place them in a warm, bright area.
  • Transplant the flowers once established using the above-discussed method of transplanting seedlings.

When To Plant Marigold Flower for the Best Yield

In terms of when to plant Marigold Flower for the best yield, Marigold Flowers take a short time to germinate (4-10 days).7

Because of this, they can be sowed directly in the garden once the danger of frost has passed.

Wide-angle view of a Marigold flower field, showcasing its vibrant orange blooms and green foliage, set against a background of distant cloudy skies.

(Image: sarangib15)

However, varieties that take longer to mature and bloom, such as African Marigolds, can be started indoors 4 to 8 weeks before the last frost.

Planting Tips for Marigold Flower

To ensure the success of this project, below are the planting tips for Marigold Flower:

  • Plant the flower outside only when the danger of frost has passed.
  • Avoid fertilizing during the growing season – fertilizers encourage leaf growth which may delay blooming.
  • If the soil is poor, use compost or well-rotted manure. And if you must use fertilizer add it during planting.
  • Hybrid Marigold seeds may not produce a flower true to the parent. You can instead buy seedlings or use cuttings.

Marigold Care

Under proper Marigold care, these plants are beautiful annuals that will light up your garden with yellow, orange, red or bi-colors. They will also attract pollinators such as different types of butterflies and bees.

But for this to happen, you must care for them.

Best Growing Conditions for Marigold Flower

If you’re looking to cultivate vibrant and healthy blooms, understanding the best growing conditions for Marigold Flower is essential.

1. Watering Needs for Marigold Flower Plants

Mature Marigold plants are hardy and drought-tolerant. However, meeting the watering needs for Marigold Flower plants is crucial to bloom and look their best.

Marigold seeds need moist soil to germinate, and the seedlings should be watered daily for the first week after germination. After that, watering can be reduced to once a week.

Always water at the base of the plant because overhead watering will cause flower heads to rot and encourage powdery mildew. Moreover, over watering will cause root rot.

2. How Much Sunlight Does Marigold Flower Need Each Day?

When it comes to how much sunlight does Marigold Flower need each day, these flowers prefer full sun. The warmer the location, the better they look.

A field filled with yellow and orange round Marigold blooms.

(Image: Joon Kuo16)

However, water adequately during sunnier months to ensure the soil doesn’t dry out. Marigolds tend to be leggy and produce fewer, less colorful flowers when planted under shade.

3. Soil Needs for Marigold Sprout and Marigold Bush

Marigold sprout can grow in almost all soils. However, they grow best in well-drained soil with a pH of 6.0 – 7.0.

Marigold bush do not need regular fertilizing. In fact, they only need fertilizing if the soil is too poor.

Instead, add compost or well rotten manure during planting.

Growing Zones for Marigold Flower (Where To Grow)

Now that you have learned how to plant Marigolds, you must wonder if these flowers can grow in your area. So, here it is:

Native Marigold Flower Growing Zone

In terms of Marigold Flower growing zones, these plants are native to Southern North America and Central America. Tagetes erecta, the tallest Marigold, is native to Mexico, Tagetes tenuifolia is native to Mexico and Central America, while Tagetes patula is native to Mexico and Guatemala.

Where To Grow Marigold Flowers

Marigold Flowers love full sun and cannot grow in cool areas. They grow and bloom within the growing season and grow best in warmer months.

The best planting zones are USDA 2 – 11, with a longer blooming season in zone 9, 10 and 11.

How Long Do Marigolds Last? (When Is Marigold Season To Flower)

Marigolds are annuals, so they only live for one year. They usually last from the start of spring until the first frost .

In terms of the Marigold season for planting, if you’re sewing seeds outdoors, aim to do it a week after the last frost, and they will bloom in 8 weeks.

Close-up of Marigold plants featuring yellow ball-shaped blossoms, green leaves, and emerging buds.

(Image: having17)

In terms of how long do Marigolds last, with proper care, such as deadheading, the flowers can bloom throughout the growing season till the first frost strike. In zone 10 and 11, blooming may last until the beginning of winter.

How Long It Takes To Grow Marigold Flower (Marigold Flower Growth Rate)

As discussed above, the Marigold Flower growth rate takes 8 weeks for it to grow from a seed to bloom. African Marigolds varieties may take longer than other types.

This answers the question “how long it takes to grow Marigold Flower?”

How Far Apart To Plant Marigold Flower

For the well-being of the plants, it’s important to consider how far apart to plant Marigold Flower. Spacing is essential for the long-term health of plants.

When crowded, plants compete for water, sunlight and nutrients, which can cause stunted growth and poor blooming.

Whether you just threw seeds in the garden, allowed the plant to self-seed or planted them, you must space the seedlings appropriately.

As a thumb rule, plant Marigold Flowers 8 to 12 inches apart. Leave 12 inches apart in all directions for taller varieties and 8 to 10 inches for dwarf varieties.

Companion Plants for Growing Marigold Flower

Aesthetics aside, Marigolds are types of flowers that keep bugs away. They are often planted in vegetable gardens to deter pests.

But to ensure the success of this, you must pair it with plants with similar growing conditions. You can plant different Marigold varieties like orange Marigolds, red Marigolds, pink Marigolds, yellow Marigolds and other types of white flowers.

Here is a list of companion plants for growing Marigold Flower:

  • Cosmos
  • Alyssum
  • Hollyhock
  • Rosemary
  • Tomato plant
  • Zinnia
  • Lettuce
  • Eggplant
  • Carrots
  • Delphinium
  • Cowpea
  • Garlic plant

Deadheading Marigold Flower

If you don’t want your Marigold plant to produce seeds, you must deadhead it.

Deadheading also improves the appearance of your garden and encourages the formation of more flowers.

Close up of a woman in a plant nursery holding pruning shears and a long-stemmed yellow flower.

(Image: Gustavo Fring10)

So, how do you deadhead a Marigold plant? Cut off the faded blooms right above the first set of leaves using scissors.

You can also pinch off the faded blooms with your hand. Deadheading should be done all through the growing season.

Disease and How To Stop Marigold Flower Disease

Marigold plants are hardy, but they also get attacked by diseases. If you want to know how to stop Marigold Flower disease, here are some diseases that affect Marigolds and how to treat them:

1. Aster Yellows

Aster yellow is caused by phytoplasma parasites which are transported by leaf hoppers.8 The disease causes stunted growth; the leaves turn yellow or white while the veins remain green.

  • Treatment: There is no treatment for aster yellow. You will have to uproot and destroy all the affected plants.
    Also, clear any debris and weeds around the unaffected plant to deter leaf hoppers.

2. Bacterial Leaf Spot

This disease appears as black or brown spots with purple margins. It is caused by Pseudomonas tagetis.

  • Treatment: There is no treatment for bacterial Leaf spot. You’ll have to uproot and destroy all the affected plants.
    To prevent the disease, water the plant at the base.

3. Fusarium Wilt

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.2 The symptoms are yellowing and stunt growth in seedlings and mature plants, but will also kill seedlings.

  • Treatment: No fungicide is effective against Fusarium wilt. You’ll have to uproot and discard all the affected plants and plant new flowers in containers.

4. Powdery Mildew

This disease is encouraged by environmental factors such as temperature, light and air circulation, and it’s very common during summer. The disease appears as white or gray patches on the leaves.

  • Treatment: Spray a mixture of water, baking soda and dish soap on the plant. If the leaves are severely affected, you may have to remove them.
    But if you prefer fungicides, use fungicides with organic sulfur or copper.

5. Septoria Leaf Spot

Septoria leaf spot is caused by the fungus Septoria tageticola. The disease causes circular to irregular brown-to-tan patches on the leaf, and inside the patches are fungal spores.

  • Treatment: Remove the affected leaves and treat the plant with copper fungicide. Moreover, space the plants appropriately to ensure good air circulation and water at the plant base.

Common Pests of the Marigold Flower

Regarding the common pests of the Marigold Flower, even though Marigolds can repel some pests like root-knot nematodes, they are also affected by other pests like aphids, mites, spider mites, slugs, white flies, caterpillars, and snails.

Close-up view of a caterpillar crawling on a stem surrounded by green leaves.

(Image: 1957477518)

They eat leaves and shoots, and severe attacks can kill the plant. Therefore, you must identify the pests and use appropriate pest control measures.4

Natural Pest Control for Marigold Flower

Pesticides are very effective in controlling pests. However, they are potentially toxic.

So, if you don’t prefer using pesticides, here are some natural pest control for Marigold Flower:

  1. Add predator insects like lacewings, hover flies and ladybirds to eat the pests in the garden.
  2. Use horticultural oils such as neem oil or canola.
  3. Use insecticidal soap- it’s effective against aphids.

Marigold Flowers are not only a treat to the eye, but also pests repellent and wonderful companion plants.

They are easy to grow, and you can harvest seeds to grow indoors or directly in the garden. Moreover, you can also plant them from cuttings.

Remember to water the plant appropriately, as overhead watering can cause diseases like powdery mildew.

Understanding the benefits and facts about Marigold flowers will ensure that you get the most out of your yearly planting.

Frequently Asked Questions About Marigold Flowers

How Do You Grow Marigold Flowers?

Marigold Flowers can be grown from seeds, seedlings or cuttings. Seeds grown indoors should be planted outside only after the dangers of frost have passed.

What Are the Best-Growing Conditions for Marigold Flowers?

Marigold Flowers prefer full sun and well-drained soil and they only require fertilizing if the soil is very poor. Otherwise, just add compost during planting.

Where To Grow Marigold Flowers?

Marigolds are hardy but can’t tolerate cold. They grow best in USDA zones 2-11.


1Rahman, T., Hasan, T., Hossain, M. T., Islam, S., Rahman, A., Alam, R. and Juyena, N. S. (2020, December 5). Differential efficacies of Marigold leaves and turmeric paste on the healing of the incised wound in sheep. NCBI. Retrieved August 14, 2023, from <>

2Schuh, M., Johnson, A., Grabowski, M., and Orshinsky, A. (2021). Fusarium wilt. University of Minnesota Extension. Retrieved August 13, 2023, from <>

3Jauron, R., & Klein, W. (2012, March 1). Yard and Garden: Marigolds | News. Iowa State University Extension. Retrieved August 14, 2023, from <>

4Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California. (2017, December 1). Managing Pests in Gardens: Floriculture: Marigold. UC IPM. Retrieved August 13, 2023, from <>

5Britannica. (2023, July 7). Marigold. Britannica. Retrieved August 14, 2023, from <>

6N.C. Cooperative Extension. (2023). Tagetes erecta. North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. Retrieved August 14, 2023, from <>

7Russ, K., Polomski, R. F., & Turner, S. A. (2021, January 19). Marigold | Home & Garden Information Center. [email protected]. Retrieved August 14, 2023, from <>

8Schuh, M., & Grabowski, M. (2023). Aster yellows | UMN Extension. University of Minnesota Extension. Retrieved August 14, 2023, from <>

9National Horticulture Board. (2023). Marigold.  National Horticulture Board. Retrieved August 14, 2023, from <>

10Photos of Pruning Flowers by Gustavo Fring. Pexels. Retrieved from <>

11Photo of Marigold Seedling by Beyond silence. Public Domain. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from <>

12Photo by SilviaEmilie. Cropped, Resized, Changed Format. Pixabay. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from <>

13Photo by s-ms_1989. Cropped, Resized, Changed Format. Pixabay. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from <>

14Photo by Nennieinszweidrei. Cropped, Resized, Changed Format. Pixabay. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from <>

15Photo by sarangib. Cropped, Resized, Changed Format. Pixabay. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from <>

16Photo by Joon Kuo. Cropped, Resized, Changed Format. Pixabay. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from <>

17Photo by having. Cropped, Resized, Changed Format. Pixabay. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from <>

18Photo by 19574775. Cropped, Resized, Changed Format. Pixabay. Retrieved April 2, 2024, from <>

19Species Information Image: A field of orange flowers with green leaves Photo by Ferdy Tjiptoraharjo. (2022, January 27) / Unsplash License. Cropped and added text, shape, and background elements. Unsplash. Retrieved February 22, 2024, from <>