Growing Lettuce: Planting Guide and Care Tips To Grow 20 Types of Lettuce

Georgette Kilgore headshot, wearing 8 Billion Trees shirt with forest in the background.Written by Georgette Kilgore

Gardening | April 1, 2024

Rabbit eating a leaf of a lettuce plant in someone’s garden who learned how to plant lettuce and grow lettuce.

If you have never eaten from an organic, homegrown lettuce plant, you won’t believe the difference in taste versus store bought.

Not only is it rich in wholesome goodness, but is also tasty, which is exactly what you want from your vegetables, and you may be surprised to know that planting lettuce is probably easier than you thought.

Many first-time gardeners love the fact that the lettuce is very easy to plant; you don’t really have to be an expert farmer to get it right.

If fact, you can grow lettuce plant varieties indoors and out (depending on your growing zone).

No more rushing to the store when your stock for salads runs out, and as a matter of fact, it is the perfect way to save you time and money, all while enjoying the vegetable in its most organic state.

This complete guide explores over 20 types of lettuce plant varieties and explains exactly how you can grow lettuce at home with planting and care tips to ensure it stays healthy.


(Lactuca sativa)

Lettuce Plant in an oval frame on a green background.
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Genus: Lactuca
  • Leaf: Wide, succulent, growing in a kind of rosette pattern, coming in various colors, from green to yellow and red.
  • Seed: Tiny, elongated with tapering at the ends, and comes in either black or tan color.
  • Blossoms: Bright yellow in color, multiple florets, appearing on stalks measuring up to a meter high
  • Native Habitat: Mediterranean
  • Height: 6 to 12 inches
  • Type: Annual
  • Native Growing Zone: USDA Zones 3 to 10

Image Credit: Diana Cherry (Cherrylafoto)49

The Plant Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

Lettuce is a pretty famous vegetable, and many praise it for its taste, health benefits, versatility, and now, in this case, how easy it is to grow. The leafy green is also a top choice for farming because it is able to grow really quickly and produce for such a long time; you don’t even have to spend a long time in care and maintenance, literally checking all of your boxes as a top choice for a kitchen garden.

Are you worried that you have a tiny space to plant the lettuce? Not to worry because this is one vegetable that you can plant on a raised bed or even in containers that you can place on your deck or balcony.

A woman watching over the young lettuce

(Image: sasint35)

Probably the best part about them is just how fast they are ready for harvesting. Imagine harvesting your plants 5-8 weeks after planting them.

That’s not even all; you can chop off the leaves that you need and come back later to harvest from the very same plant.

Did you know that there are hundreds of varieties of the lettuce plant? Getting to understand them, you will have a pretty hard time deciding which one to plant.

Some are soft and delicate, others are crispy, others take a traditional green color, while others take more colorful shades like red.

The lettuce could be in one of four main forms, head lettuce, leaf lettuce, Romaine, or Butterhead; it’s all up to you to select.7

How To Plant Lettuce

There are so many kinds of lettuce plants, and if you are a beginner, you need to at least know the general planting tips even before you go deeper into learning how to grow particular lettuce varieties.

Here is where you start: learning how lettuce is supposed to be planted in general.

Growing From a Seed/How To Plant Lettuce Seeds

Seed planting may seem daunting, but you should give it a try to see how exciting it can be, watching your lettuce grow massive from a tiny thing.

You have two options when it comes to planting seeds: either grow them directly outdoors or start off indoors before later transplanting them outside.4 But some will tell you to avoid outdoor seed planting because of insects and birds.

You will dig the seeds ⅛ or a ¼ inch deep, not too far that they are away from the light. The seeds love it when the soil is in great condition, and there is sunlight access.

Close up image of the lettuce seedlings in a small plastic container.

(Image: Jennifer Dickert 36)

So, when planting indoors, you will need to place them under a sunny window or a grow light to avoid them becoming too leggy. You can also plant them outdoors when the air is a little warmer, but while at it, make sure that you have properly tilted the seedbed, removing tiny rocks and dirt clumps that would otherwise prevent growth.

Growing From a Cutting

Planting from seeds is quite popular, but some gardeners would rather propagate their lettuce from scraps.

It seems to be quite convenient, but there is a problem; it may not really provide a yield as high as that which comes from seeds. But at least it is way cheaper and faster, ideal for some beginners.

All that you have to do is chop off the bottom part of the lettuce, with but an inch of leaves left, then place the scrap in water in a container placed near a sunny spot.

The more you change the water in a few days, the more you see the roots and more leaves developing, and that should take about a week. And your leaves should be ready for consumption in, say, two weeks.

Growing From a Seedling

If you want to skip the planting of seeds, you can always take the easy way out and start with seedlings. You can either find them in nurseries or transfer them from the seedbeds indoors.

As long as the conditions outside are conducive, you can always have your seedlings growing in their final permanent spots, arranging them nicely in rows and columns while giving them enough room to grow wide.

The only problem is that seedlings can be a little too delicate, and gardeners would rather start from seeds and wait for germination and be able to harvest their lettuce.

Growing in Containers/How To Grow Lettuce in Pots

There are so many reasons why you would want to plant your lettuce in a container instead of directly in the ground.16 Maybe you just want to keep a close eye on your veggies, or you want to keep them safe from pests and diseases.

No matter what the reason is, you will be glad to know that there are so many gardeners out there like you who find containers more convenient.

Top-view photo of young lettuces planted in black plastic containers.

(Image: Forest and Kim Starr37)

You should be good to go as long as the planter that you choose is spacious enough, is made of the right materials, and has drainage holes to help reduce excessive amounts of moisture. A 6-12 inch pot that is made of unglazed clay will work just fine because the space will be sufficient, and in case of anything, at least the excessive moisture will seep through the walls.

Planting Tips for Lettuce

The best thing about the lettuce plant is the fact that it will not be too overwhelming for you to plant. You will even be able to get bumper harvests with very little effort, but for the best results, you might want to take a look at some of these tips.

When To Plant for the Best Yield

One thing about lettuce is that it enjoys it when it’s a little bit cool, and that is what you need to take advantage of if you are looking for the best time to plant.

Take, for instance, if you are planting seeds. What you will have to do is sow them 2-4 weeks before the expected last day of frost, just immediately after the soil becomes workable.

Alternatively, for indoor settings, you can go ahead and sow seeds a month before, and while at it, maybe try hardening off the seedlings some days or a week before you are ready to take them outdoors. By doing this instead of planting before summer, you will be able to protect your plants from bolts.3

How Far Apart To Plant

You are fully aware of how the lettuce usually grows: fleshy, with several leaves forming a kind of rosette pattern.

You have to keep that in mind when you are planning how to space out your garden because the last thing that you would want is your lettuce being too cramped up, which really affects the yield. Lettuce growing together will only compete for the available resources, and of course, that has a negative effect on growth.

So, ultimately, how you will end up spacing your plants entirely depends on the particular variety of lettuce and how big it is expected to get.

Photo of lettuce planted in rows in a plantation.

(Image: wuestenigel38)

However, in general, based on most types, you will have to leave a 6-inch wide space in between each and every plant, and this should be enough for their heads to grow comfortably.

But, on the other hand, if you are dealing with cultivars that tend to grow larger, like the Butterhead and Romaine, you may have to plant them 8 inches apart.

How Long It Takes To Grow (Lettuce Plant Growth Rate)

Out of so many types of vegetables that you can grow in your garden, lettuce stands out when it comes to one vital feature: just how fast it is able to grow.17

In fact, that is one of its strongest pros because you can imagine a plant that reaches maturity in only about 30 days. You don’t have to wait months or years before you can see the results.

The rate of growth, however, depends on the variety, and if that is a dealbreaker for you, you can narrow down your options to the fastest growing.

How Long Does Lettuce Take To Grow?

One of the most impressive features of lettuce is just how fast they are able to grow, and in fact, that is one of the main reasons why you would want to plant it in your vegetable garden.

You won’t have to wait ages before you are able to enjoy the fruits of your labor. The rate of growth usually depends on the particular lettuce variety in question, but all in all, the vegetable will take anywhere between 30-70 days before it is ready for harvesting, which is pretty incredible.

How Can You Make Lettuce Seedlings Grow Faster?

Did you know that you can actually make your lettuce seedlings grow even faster?

As long as all the growing conditions are right, your lettuce will be comfortable, and will, of course, grow at an even more shocking pace. To make this happen, you may want to make sure that you only plant when the temperatures are at their optimum.

Water and food obviously are also key to help accelerate the growth a little bit, and that should explain why you need to provide more water, maybe via drip irrigation, and thoroughly amend the soil with either compost or manure. Adding a layer of mulch will also go a really long way to preserve the level of moisture and regulate the temperature, which boosts overall growth.

What Are the Best Best Growing Conditions for Lettuce

It is without a shadow of a doubt that the lettuce has some really great qualities, and anyone interested in having a vegetable garden would want that. However, one thing gets in the way of your success.

Are you able to provide the best growing conditions? Will it be comfortable under your care?

This is because discomfort will show, and in some cases, it could even mean the end of your plant’s life as you know it.

How Much Sunlight Does Lettuce Need Each Day?

At least the lettuce is a bit more comfortable when it comes to this requirement.

Photo of a lettuce in a plastic container under the sunlight.

(Image: Alan Levine39)

Yes, it does love basking under the full sun, but it will still not mind it when there is partial shade, especially when growing in a relatively hot region.

But all in all, 6 hours of access to sunlight is enough, but don’t provide too much shade because the lettuce will grow too leggy and, of course, frail.

Watering Needs

Vegetables can be a little water-hungry, and you would expect that with lettuce, too, right?

Well, that is not the case. You see, with this leafy green, the aim is to make sure that there is way more growth above the ground; that is, in the leaves, it is not even about having super strong roots anymore.

So, it goes without saying that the lettuce doesn’t need that much watering; it should, in fact, be light, although consistent. You will be making sure that the soil stays wet, not waterlogged, because that too has some damaging effects like causing root rot.

Soil Requirements When Planting

This will be your lettuce’s home for the rest of its life, so nothing can go wrong. You could actually get everything else right, but the plant cannot get past issues with the soil.

For the best yield and a comfortable and happy lettuce, you want to make sure that the soil drains properly and that it is also nutritious, that is, rich in organic content. You may have to consider using compost to improve the quality.

What Is the Best Temperature For Growing a Lettuce?

There is one more thing that you have to bear in mind when it comes to planting the lettuce: the simple fact that it is not a huge fan of hot weather.

You will realize that exposure to extremely hot weather could give the leaves a bitter taste. That is even why experts would advise you to go for heat-tolerant species if you are planning to have summer plantings.

However, in most cases, the lettuce will be found growing comfortably when the temperatures are ranging in between 45-70 degrees (F).

How To Care For Growing Lettuce

Do you believe that you have a green thumb, or do plants always seem to die under your care? No matter how hard you try?

The lettuce is about to change things. How, you would ask?

Simple, because it doesn’t need too much TLC, it is one of the easiest-maintenance plants that will work, even if you are a first-timer.18 It doesn’t matter if you get too busy or forgetful, just as long as you check in on them once in a while in the following ways.


As earlier pointed out, lettuce loves it when the soil is rich in organic matter, and that is one of the ways that you can care for your plant to make sure that it grows green and nutritious leaves. There are more benefits to amending the soil, like keeping the moisture levels in check, preventing the spread of weeds, and maintaining the levels of temperature5

What you are going to do is to make sure the fertilizer you use has a high nitrogen content, and probably the best time to amend the soil is, say, three weeks before you plant, and even after planting, you can always add a 5-5-5 or 10-10-10 water-soluble fertilizer about once every 2 or 4 weeks.


You are in luck again because the lettuce is not exactly the plant that expects pruning every time.

Your plants will only need occasional maintenance, like removing the leaves that are broken or old to at least decongest the head; this is to leave enough room for proper air circulation and counter the spread of pests and diseases. But also, the lettuce is not so heavy on pruning because harvesting gets the job done anyway.


As much as the lettuce prefers it when it’s a little cold, it still doesn’t mean that it does well under freezing temperatures; it is a vegetable, after all. The fact that it is an annual plant could give you hope that it would do well when overwintered, but it is not worth the risk unless you are talking about the extremely cold-tolerant species, but, even so, you will still have to be very careful.

You will have to mulch the soil with straw and wood chips, and that should protect your plants from frostbite and help the soil retain its moisture levels.

Your best shot would be to plant your lettuce in a container if you still want a steady supply of vegetables, even in the coldest months. At least you will be able to carry your plant over inside when the weather becomes unbearable.

Growing Zones for Lettuce Plant (Where To Grow)

Every time you are conducting your research about a plant, you will, at some point, bump into information concerning its planting zones. You could easily brush this off until you realize just how important it is and how it could actually determine whether you will be successful or not.

You absolutely have to understand the growing zones of the lettuce to make sure that you have a great shot at planting it because otherwise, it could be an uphill task to try to force it to grow where it just can’t.

  1. Zone 1 and 2: These are the regions that experience some of the coldest temperatures, and that is why experts strongly advise against planting lettuce here, especially outdoors.
  2. Zone 3: You can plant here in April and May
  3. Zone 4: Comfortable environment for the lettuce and the perfect time for planting is anytime between April and June.
  4. Zone 5 and Zone 6:34 The conditions get more favorable in these planting zones, and that is why the time for planting gets more flexible. You will be able to plant from March all the way to June and then in September.13
  5. Zone 7 and 8: As for these planting zones, your lettuce will be okay being planted anytime between February to April, then from September to October.
  6. Zone 9: If you live in such a region, then you will be able to plant your lettuce from January to March, and then in October and November.
  7. Zone 10: In this zone, your lettuce will be way more comfortable if planted in January all the way to March and finally in November and December.
  8. Zone 11 to 13: You already know that these regions feature some of the highest temperatures ever, and that is why growing the lettuce will be a little bit challenging. However, it could work if you focus on planting in the coolest months and provide a little more TLC, like shading.

How To Identify Lettuce

There are some unique features that will always tell a lettuce plant from any other leafy green that you see growing in kitchen gardens.

Lettuce Leaves

You cannot possibly miss the lettuce leaves with their signature showy and fleshy selves.

They are the most important part of the entire plant, measuring 3-6 inches long and wide, and the most exciting part is how there are so many lettuce varieties, each with unique leaf shapes and colors.

You will bump into lettuce that are green, red, white, purple, or even variegated, and as for the shape, you can expect to find a lettuce with rugged, round, or wavy leaves.

Lettuce Flower

Some people have never seen the flowers of lettuce, but they do show up. It is just that they are the last things you want to see on your plant because they basically ruin the tasty goodness of the lettuce.

Graphic that shows how to identify lettuce plant using leaf, flower, and fruit and seeds.

But when you spot them, you can confirm by their golden yellow color and how they grow on tall stalks that emerge from the plant.

Lettuce Seeds

If you are a huge fan of seed planting, you should know what to expect when it comes to lettuce.15 The seeds are tiny, usually looking like grains of rice, and you can tell by their shape: elongated with pointed edges.

Note that they tend to come in two versions, either black or tan-colored.

Growing Different Types of Lettuces

You will be amazed by just how massive the world of lettuce truly is. There are four main types of lettuce, coming in various shapes, colors, textures, and sizes, and under them, there are more cultivars for you to choose from.

Graphic that shows the types of lettuce such as looseleaf lettuce, butterhead lettuce, crisphead lettuce, and romaine lettuce.

So, you can imagine just how many options are at your disposal. That is why this section takes a closer look at five of the most common lettuce varieties under each of the main four types: Romaine, Crisphead, Butterhead, and, finally, Looseleaf.

Maybe this will help you decide.

Growing Types of Looseleaf Lettuces

The Looseleaf grows exactly as its name suggests. In comparison to other types of lettuce, the leaves of this one don’t form a ball; they sort of grow independently and tend to spread themselves apart.

One advantage of this type of lettuce is the fact that it is not as susceptible to bolt under hot weather, unlike other lettuce.

1. Deer Tongue

Why the name Deer Tongue, you may ask. It is because this heirloom cultivar tends to grow in an arrowhead-like shape that looks just like a deer’s tongue.

It is rather slow to bolt, which you definitely want in lettuce, and it usually takes around 45 days to reach maturity. The best time to plant this one is early in the fall to keep it safe from the punishing weather.

You have a better shot starting it with seeds, and you can choose to do it indoors or outdoors.

But remember that it is way cheaper and more convenient to start outdoors, so you would rather wait for the weather to become more favorable. The seeds can go ¼ an inch deep, and make sure that you space them properly, say in rows that are 12-18 inches apart.

And if you want to pair them up with other cultivars, you would rather go for types like garlic, carrots, cucumbers, and maybe other lettuce.

2. Grand Rapids

Are you looking for a Looseleaf lettuce that grows aggressively? You can tell that the Grand Rapids will be a perfect choice when you see how its crinkled leaves grow dense and fast, ready for use in only 30 days.

This plant is also well-known for its crispiness and sweet flavor, apart from its fast maturity. If you want nothing but the best out of this lettuce, you better give it a head start, planting it 6 weeks before the expected last frost date.19

Close up photo of the Grand Rapids lettuce.

(Image: Jeremy Bronson40)

This should be done indoors, of course, because of the weather conditions, after which you can transplant outside maybe a few weeks later.

Alternatively, if you believe that the conditions are not that bad, you can go ahead and sow directly outside, burying 2-3 lettuce seeds ⅛ an inch deep and up to 10 inches apart from each other. All it takes is a week, and germination should start.

Also, if you are keen on having a steady lettuce supply, one trick is to plant more seeds 3 weeks apart.

3. Prizehead

It’s interesting how the ‘Prizehead’ is actually a Looseleaf lettuce cultivar, with its upright growing ruffled-up leaves that have a signature light green color and burgundy shades at the tips.

This one will serve you if you are on the lookout for a crunchy and flavorful lettuce that will definitely add a dash of color to your kitchen garden. It is known for being pretty productive, able to grow really fast and have its leaves reach as big as 10 inches long.

To grow them, there is, of course, the conventional method of starting with seeds indoors and then transplanting them outside later on.

There is another method, though, using microgreens and baby greens to plant your Prizehead lettuce. This can be done hydroponically or even directly in the soil, where you will only have to mist them using a small spray bottle and then cover them for a few days.11

However, if you don’t want to deal with the delicate nature of using tiny seedlings, you can always go for seed planting.

4. Ruby

Are you a huge fan of colored types of lettuce? Then, you will easily take to the Ruby variety. This heirloom is very well known for its deep red color and how rugged its leaves look.

Of course, like its relatives, it is also pretty resistant to bolt and you will love just how much it is able to retain its vivid red color even when the weather gets too hot. As soon as you sense that the soil can be worked on, your Ruby seeds will be ready for planting.

For the best results, you may want to consider planting when the temperatures are around 60-65 degrees, not any higher, and always avoid using heat mats when germinating the seeds. There is a possibility of the seeds entering dormancy due to over-exposure to extremely high temperatures.

To help increase your chances of success, you should also consider amending the soil with fertilizer, maybe some 3 weeks before and after you transplant the seedlings.

5. Green Ice

Now, back to the conventional green lettuce types you know, the Green Ice definitely doesn’t disappoint. This Looseleaf cultivar is ruffled and crunchy, just like you love your lettuce, and the leaves are able to grow to as huge as 12 inches tall.

It is interesting how the Green Ice is actually a crossed lettuce between two common lettuce breeds, the Grand Rapids and Fordhook. So, how do you plant one?

First, wait out the temperatures until they reach at least 50 degrees, and if you are sure that the soil is fertile (amended with compost) and well-draining, that will be your cue to start planting the Green Ice lettuce. Depth really matters when it comes to planting the lettuce, and that is why you have to sow the seeds like ¼ an inch deep and no more.20

You will then keep the soil wet all through the stages and maybe even add mulching to help lock in the moisture.

Growing Types of Butterhead Lettuces

A quick glance at the Butterhead types of lettuce, you can easily tell that they are quite different from the Looseleaf types. When it comes to these breeds, the leaves grow closer together, forming a sort of head but not very tight.

Like their cousins, these ones also have a sweet flavor, especially when growing in chilly conditions, although they start turning bitter when the temperature levels start rising.

6. Yugoslavian Red

Of course, you can tell that the Yugoslavian Red type of lettuce hails from the country of the same name, that is Yugoslavia. It is generally new to the US, having been introduced in the 1980s.

With this breed, you get so much in just one, whether you are looking for a lettuce that has a great taste or one that helps lift the face of your garden. The best feature of this cultivar is definitely its leaves, how they have an incredible color, bright green covered in burgundy specks.

Photo of the Yugoslavian Red lettuce planted on the ground.

(Image: Derek Ramsey42)

When it comes to this particular lettuce, just make sure that you will provide cooler temperatures as they grow. If not, and the air is too hot, you will have to provide extra shading but, at the same time, protect them from extreme cold weather that could lead to heavy frost.

What else does the lettuce need? Good ventilation, enough space from other plants (2 inches wide when fully grown), and, of course, feeding with liquid fertilizer.

7. Tom Thumb

Wondering what happens when you don’t have enough space to grow your lettuce? There is a solution: Tom Thumb.

Now, looking at this cultivar, you can easily tell that it is a bit tinier than the other Butterhead types; it grows smaller and more compact, and that automatically makes it a favorite for container planting and window box farming.10 Apart from being smaller in size, it also easily adjusts to different soil types, just as long as the ground drains well and it is rich.

When you are planning to sow the Tom Thumb seeds, make sure that you have at least a month before the last frost date. You could plant it indoors and later transplant it, but if it seems hectic for you, you can wait until the temperatures are conducive before directly planting the seeds outdoors in the ground.

You just have to make sure that the seeds are moist all through, at least until germination takes place, which should be in 7-10 days.

8. Bibb

The Bibb has got to feature in this list, especially since it is one of the most widely-known varieties of Butterhead lettuce. There is just something special about the Bibb Butterhead; it could be its bright green leaves that are so soft to the touch or its delicate pale-like center.

You will definitely enjoy growing and consuming this cut-and-come-again lettuce.

Wondering where the name comes from? John B. Bibb, an 1812 war officer is the one who developed the variety.21

Photo of the Bibb lettuce planted on the ground.

(Image: Ivy Dawned43)

Soil preparation is key in matters of planting the Bibb lettuce. Even before planting, experts will advise that you work manure and compost into the soil and, while at it, check that the seedbed is smooth, with no rocks or other obstructions.

So, when sowing, it gets easier for the seeds to grow because the soil will be fertile, and nothing will get in the way of the seedlings growing.

Also, remember not to cover the seeds heavily; only a ¼- inch depth will be enough.

9. Buttercrunch

Name a more popular Butterhead lettuce than the Buttercrunch. It is pretty easy to see why gardeners are huge fans of this beautiful plant, from the vivid green shade in the leaves to the rose-like pattern that it forms.

It is a win-win for you when you plant this one because you get a lettuce that is resistant to bolting and does pretty well under high heat. It is also a cut-and-come-again kind of lettuce, and you can later on just pick the whole 6-8 inch head.

Photo of several Buttercrunch lettuce planted on the ground.

(Image: Dwight Sipler44)

Ideally, you want to plant your lettuce either in spring or fall, just as long as the vegetables have enough time to mature. You can do it indoors, but if you are patient, you can always wait it out to see whether the threat of frost goes away, which gives you ample time to work and amend the soil and plant directly in the ground, which is faster, cheaper and more convenient by the way.

10. Dynamite

This hybrid lettuce breed has got to be on this list and for so many reasons at that. It ticks literally all of your boxes when you are looking for an excellent type of lettuce to grow, be it a sweet-flavored lettuce, one that matures rather quickly, or one that is very resistant to pests and diseases.

The only issue is that it may not exactly be as heat tolerant as the types of lettuce mentioned above, so if you are going to plant in full sun, you have to make sure that it is in early spring or, better yet, find a way to shade the garden from excessive heat.

When the summer gets too hot, you will need extra shade to keep the temperatures below 75 degrees to protect the leaves from bolt.

Also, make sure that you don’t plant too deep in the soil, only about ¼ an inch, and as for spacing, a 12-inch gap will do.

Lastly, if you are very keen on getting a consistent harvest, you can go ahead and plant them 2 weeks apart, and that will extend the harvest time.

Growing Types of Crisphead Lettuces

The Crisphead lettuce, otherwise known as the iceberg lettuce, is easy to tell apart from the rest of the bunch.

You see, instead of loosely growing leaves, these ones come in a tight pack, and their distinguishing feature is how their crisp leaves kind of fold over each other and form a very dense head. What starts out as a dark green color on the outside gradually starts fading to become white towards the inside and the base of the head.8

11. Hanson Improved

You just can’t take your eyes off this lettuce cultivar, with its bright green leaves and how the leaves have a curly texture on the exterior.22 When you split it open, you will notice that the center is purely white and that, together with the leaves, it has a kind of mild yet sweet flavor; the best part is that at least this one doesn’t get a bitter taste when it gets older.

In addition to that, the variety also has the advantage of being more tolerant of heat, unlike other iceberg lettuce.

After planting the seeds ¼ of an inch deep and spacing out the rows 12-18 inches apart, your lettuce should be already germinating in about a week. You shouldn’t have any problems growing the Hanson Improved just as long as the temperatures stay within the 45-90 degree mark and the soil is draining well.

The only extra care that it is going to need, apart from maybe amending the soil, is thinning the leaves to be at least 2 inches apart.

12. Crispino

The Crispino is such an attractive lettuce, and you can’t help but stare at how lush the leaves grow around the head and how they curl back as soon as they mature and are ready for harvesting (you can use that as a sign that they are ready).

The Crispino lettuce finds it easy to adapt to various conditions. It could survive in an open space in the ground or grow in containers or even window boxes.

Many also hail it for being an excellent choice for making lettuce wraps and salads.

But how do you plant it?

For the Crispino, you are going to want to start it 3-4 weeks indoors before thinking about transplanting it outside.

You could place 2-3 seeds in each and every cell and then later thin out to 1 in each cell. Just make sure that you give the lettuce some space to grow, perhaps an 8-12 inch distance in between the plantings.

When it comes to harvesting, you have the option to either harvest the entire head or just chop off leaves individually.

13. Crisphead Great Lakes

This impressive lettuce was first introduced to the scene by the USDA in the year 1941, and so popular was it that it was actually an award-winning vegetable in 1944, courtesy of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment station.23

You will easily tell this iceberg lettuce apart by its 8-12 inch head and how the leaves latch on tightly to each other with their signature serrated leaves on the outside. All it takes is just around 80 days, and you should be able to harvest your delicious lettuce.

Detailed image of the Crisphead Great Lakes lettuce.

(Image: en:User:Geographer – enwiki45)

It is entirely up to you if you want to start planting indoors or outdoors, provided that your lettuce is comfortable, meaning that the prevailing conditions have to be just right. Your plants will need like 6 hours of daily sunlight, moderate watering, and a sufficient amount of feeding, fertilizer, that is.

What about space? You could actually grow this lettuce in a container or out in the open under full or partial shade, but the advantage with containers is that you are free to relocate the plants when the conditions become unbearable.

14. Igloo

Are you looking for iceberg lettuce that is a bit more tolerant to heat?24 If so, look no further than the Igloo.

It is well known for how resistant it is in the face of heat, meaning that it will be able to grow even during warm months of the year. It is also fascinating how the leaves grow massive to form a 12-inch head size.

Seventy days are enough for the plant to reach maturity, and you will love the fact that the leaves are crispy and have a sort of mild flavor.

One thing you should never forget about the Igloo lettuce is that the soil must be rich. This will automatically improve the chances of success and help the plant mature even faster.

Therefore, fertilize the soil once before planting and once a month moving forward. Some gardeners choose to plant their Igloo lettuce alongside other vegetables like carrots, but while at it, keep a watchful eye over wildlife that can’t get enough of the tasty leaves, like rabbits and deer, so you may have to set up a barrier around your garden.

15. Webbs Wonderful

This is another outstanding heirloom lettuce cultivar that comes from England; in fact, it was first introduced in the year 1890 by a horticulturist from England by the name of Clarence Webb.6 What you first notice about this lettuce is how firm the head is and how the 11-inch heart takes a light green color that turns dark towards the outside.

As with any other variety of lettuce, what you are going to do with the lettuce is to make sure that the soil is well prepared before you even start planting.

You will start with raking to make sure that the ground is smooth enough and add fertilizer to improve the soil’s quality. At least this way, the seeds will have a way easier time growing to mature in 72 days.

In as little as 6-12 days, germination should already start happening, and given that the head is able to grow rather massive, you will have to regularly thin the plants while consuming them, of course, making sure that there are like 2 inches of space in between fully grown lettuce.

Growing Types of Romaine Lettuces

Closing off the list of the main types of lettuce you are likely to bump into is Romaine, or cos lettuce, also commonly famous for making the tastiest Caesar salads.25

Just like its cousins, you can’t help but appreciate how crispy and tasty the leaves truly are, but what sets it apart from the rest is how elegant the leaves look. They are slim and more elongated, sometimes measuring up to 12 inches long, and the best part?

You can expect leaves in green, red, and speckled shades.

16. Cimarron

This heirloom kind of lettuce dates as far back as the 1700s and is definitely a show-stopper. Also known as the Red Romaine, you can tell that the leaves of the Cimarron take a more burgundy shade, although the hearts are pale green.

Wondering why this breed is at the top of this list and why gardeners prefer it to other Romaine lettuce? Simple, how resistant it is to heat and how it doesn’t bolt easily.

As soon as the temperatures rise to about 35 degrees, that would be your cue to start preparing the soil for planting. You can even start the Romaine lettuce seeds off indoors or patiently wait until the soil is workable and immediately start planting outside in shallow planting holes.26

You already know that the roots of the lettuce tend to grow rather shallow, and that is why your plants will need moist soil (but not soggy) for the leaves to remain soft and savory.

17. Parris Island

Does the name Parris Island sound familiar? That’s because this particular Romaine lettuce is named after an island that is off the coast of South Carolina.

You will most likely find this Romaine being sold in your nearest grocery store, as people can’t seem to get enough of the tall, strong, and crispy leaves that are complete game changers when making the perfect lettuce wraps. You would definitely want to grow this right in your home, and it helps that it matures in only 50 days.2

Close up image of the Parris Island lettuce with some drips of liquid on its leaves.

(Image: el cajon yacht club46)

First things first, you have to be very careful when it comes to the soil temperature because if the levels go too high up, say above 90 degrees, the seeds will rebel and actually become dormant.

Also, avoid overwatering the plant because the roots are not that deep to absorb too much water, and that could actually lead to many complications. You just have to water minimally but consistently, checking that the soil doesn’t excessively dry up.

18. Forellenschluss

This particular cultivar is quite a fascinating one, probably unlike any other lettuce that you have ever come across. It is not even about its weird name; even the way it looks is interesting, considering how it has got dark green leaves and reddish spots or freckles all over.

The plant comes all the way from Austria, and as a matter of fact, the name Forellenschluss can be directly translated from German to mean “speckled like a trout”.

But, most importantly, what are the growing tips when planting this lettuce?

Photo of the Forellenschluss lettuce planted on the ground.

(Image: Jeff Aldrich47)

Planting this lettuce is not even as daunting as you may think: all you have to do is sow the seeds ⅛-¼ inches deep and make sure that the soil is wet at the time and, of course, well-fed with compost. You can even go ahead and cover up the seeds with a piece of fabric to help keep them cool and help them retain the level of moisture in the soil.

19. Vivian

The Vivian cultivar may end up being one of the most massive Romaine lettuce that you have ever come across.

Imagine a lettuce whose leaves are able to grow to as long as 12-16 inches and the head is about 6 inches wide. It also looks pretty good, given how neat and tight the bunches grow, and it is perfect if you like your vegetables dark green, making your garden look lush and alive.

If you are looking forward to having this growing in your own home, you will be glad to know that it doesn’t really take much. As long as you prepare your soil a few weeks ahead of planting time, the plant will have no issues whatsoever.

To get a head start, you can start the seedlings off indoors, then maybe gradually harden them off in a few days before you finally permanently transplant them outside, where they should be ready for harvesting in about 70 days.

20. Little Caesar

This list would not be complete without the Little Caesar. Although it is a bit smaller than the other Romaine lettuce above, it doesn’t take away from the fact that it is one of the tastiest vegetables that you can ever have growing in your home.27

Did you know that a single fully mature head could be enough for you to make a Caesar salad that can feed two?

Even though it grows smaller, the Little Caesar will still need some spacing between plantings. Maybe consider a 12-inch space, and while growing, you will have to thin to about 2 inches apart.

Adding compost and manure will also go a pretty long way to boost your harvest, and you can couple that with frequent watering.

Companion Plants For Growing Heads of Lettuce

Imagine having more vegetables growing right in your garden. You won’t have to keep making trips to the store when something runs out.

If you are interested in growing a lettuce plant, then you will be glad to know that it easily gets along with other vegetables and plants.

Graphic that shows the lettuce plant growth chart in 1 - 10 days, 11 - 20 days, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months.

As a matter of fact, it is not just about having more crops in your garden; companion planting also has the benefit of solving some issues for your lettuce, like pests and excessive heat.

Here are some top options that you should consider planting alongside your lettuce.

  1. Garlic and onions (Alliums): One thing about plants from the allium family is that pests can’t stand them. They hate their strong scent and would rather not be in the same place as them, and of course, that would be a win for your lettuce.
    Therefore, these plants will serve as natural pest repellants and keep your lettuce safe.9
  2. Tomatoes:28 Are you worried that you have a rather small garden space and can’t grow many plants at a go? Then, you want to consider planting the tomatoes.
    The plant is known to grow taller and wider, while lettuce grows low on the ground: what better way to make use of a small space?
    Besides, the tomatoes will be able to provide shade from strong sunlight.
  3. Legumes (peas and beans): Virtually every expert gardener knows legumes are perfect companion plant options. They are natural nitrogen fixers, and that is exactly what the lettuce needs; in the long run, you will end up applying less fertilizer.
  4. Calendula:29 Well, for starters, the calendula is a stunning plant that will spruce up your garden, but apart from ornamental value, the plant is also a natural trap for snails and slugs.
  5. Cucumber: Lettuce and cucumber have almost the same growing needs, and that means that maintenance will be way easier.
    In addition to that, the cucumber tends to grow in a vining pattern, which basically means that they will be able to provide shade over your lettuce.
  6. Carrots and radishes (root vegetables): These kinds of vegetables will be excellent additions to your kitchen garden, and considering exactly how they grow, they are definitely going to use up less space, leaving room for your lettuce. This may be the best time to learn how to grow carrots if you have no idea.
    Besides, since lettuce doesn’t have a deep root system, there will be more room under the ground for the root vegetables.

When To Pick and How To Harvest Lettuce (How To Harvest Romaine and Other Lettuce Types)

You have done your due diligence, found the perfect lettuce that you can grow, and gone ahead to plant it and care for it until it has matured. When all that is said and done, one more thing is left: how do you harvest your precious lettuce?30

It is not just about getting the leaves off the plant; no matter what you do, it has to be safe for your lettuce and actually lead to an increase in production. Therefore, harvesting doesn’t always necessarily mean that the plant has to die.

As a matter of fact, many gardeners prefer using the cut-and-come-again method, where they are able to harvest their lettuce a couple more times. Your best bet is to harvest in a way that leaves room for more leaves to come up, and that is by chopping off the leaves on the outside one at a time, taking only what you need and leaving the rest to keep thriving.

The best part about growing a plant like lettuce is that you are able to harvest whenever you want.

What you are going to need for this is a clean and sharp pair of scissors.

You will cut one at a time, but make sure that you don’t cut entire leaves because you still need them to keep growing. This is perhaps the kindest way to harvest your lettuce, but you can also opt to cut more leaves at a go, which is, of course, more time-saving.

However, there is one more method: harvesting the entire lettuce head.

For one reason or another, you would want to take out the entire plant from the ground; maybe it is already starting to bolt, and you would rather not risk losing the other leaves. The only problem with this method is that it automatically kills off the plant, which would end its entire growth cycle, and you will have to start planting afresh in the next season.

Common Pests of Lettuce

The lettuce is undoubtedly a tasty vegetable, and that kind of explains why even insects and other pests are naturally drawn to it.

It is expected to find unwanted guests lurking around your lettuce, hoping and trying to get a bite of the yummy leaves. That is why you have to be aware of what these pests are to better look after your plant.

  1. Aphids: Ask literally any gardener you know, and they will tell you their constant battle with aphids.
    These tiny, pear-shaped insects are commonly found where there are green lush plant leaves and vegetables, and you will either see tiny spots on your plant or symptoms when your lettuce has already fallen victim. They cause the leaves to lose their color and shape and, in severe cases, make them fall off prematurely.
  2. Cutworms: Caterpillars are huge fans of tasty leaves like those of lettuce, and you may at one point bump into this thick, brown, or gray worm munching into the soft parts of the lettuce leaf. As a result, the leaves start wilting, and the plant starts losing some vital parts like the stems.1
  3. Leafhopper: This pest is kind of shaped like a spindle and is a deadly one to attack because it immediately starts extracting the sap from the leaves, and that leads to massive effects on your harvest. What you are left with is wrinkled, curled, and discolored leaves.
  4. Earwigs: You have never met pests as aggressive as earwigs. These ones are infamous for just how ruthless they are when they attack fleshy leaves like those of lettuce; they only leave behind holes in various parts of the plant, and that potentially means the death of your lettuce.
  5. Beet Armyworm:31 Another caterpillar that has devastating effects on your lettuce is the beet armyworm. It is a black or sometimes green larva that measures about 3 cm long, and you need to watch out for it because it tends to destroy the leaves and growing buds of the lettuce.
  6. Snails/slugs: These mollusks may be slow-moving, but when they do attack, they leave nothing behind. That is what happens when your seedlings ‘disappear,’ or you end up finding huge chunks of lettuce leaves missing.
    You will easily tell their presence when you see slimy trails on the plants or the ground or spot massive holes in the leaves.

Natural Pest Control

The last thing you would want to happen to your lettuce is a pest attack.

These creatures have literally no mercy when it comes to feeding on your plants and will not hesitate to attack an entire garden, plus other plants nearby, if given the chance. That is why it is crucial to know how to spot common pests and how to get rid of them, and that should be done as soon as possible, at least before it’s too late.

There are different solutions for particular pests, and it usually depends on their size and other features.

For instance, in the case of attacks by massive pests like slugs and caterpillars, you can easily spot them, meaning that handpicking or manual removal is preferred. You can wear protective gear and remove them from the plants while dropping them into a container filled with some soap water.

On the other hand, when it comes to smaller insects like aphids, handpicking will be physically impossible, and you may actually have to go for other methods.

You may have to consider using an insecticidal soap that you can even make at home.

It is basically a mixture of dish soap, water, neem oil, garlic, and any other natural repellant. Some gardeners also cover their plants with fabric or wrap some orange/ banana peels around the plant.

Others also choose another approach where they introduce predatory insects that will hunt down the pests, all the while not being interested in the lettuce.

While these natural control methods are effective, prevention is key when it comes to pests. That is why experts will always advise that you religiously weed your garden because these are the breeding grounds for pests.

You should also be very careful in your companion planting because there are some crops that pests are naturally drawn to, and they will definitely find their way to your lettuce.

Common Diseases

The lettuce is an excellent plant to grow because it takes a rather short time to reach maturity. There is only one problem: the fact that maintenance also means disease prevention and sometimes treatment.

Close up image of a leaf of lettuce infected by a disease.

(Image: Scot Nelson48)

If something is amiss, your plants could end up getting infected by diseases, some even lethal, able to kill the lettuce within a very short time. Here are some common diseases that you should be worried about.

  1. Lettuce Mosaic Virus: This is a viral disease that has a massive impact on the leaves of the lettuce.32 When it attacks, it affects the leaves differently; those of the loose leaf variety fade and start folding backward, while those of the Romaine breed could have additional blistering.
    Stunted growth and discolorations are also common for the Butterhead lettuce.
  2. Leaf Spot: Bacteria are also some of the most feared lettuce diseases and, in fact, some of the most lethal because curing them becomes an uphill task.33 It basically manifests itself as huge dark lesions or wounds on the top parts of the leaves, and there may also be some colored marks forming a sort of halo around the markings.12
  3. Bottom Rot: This fungi tends to attack the leaves that are close to the ground because that is their breeding ground. These organisms thrive in the soil and sometimes in the same environment as your lettuce, which is why they find it so easy to attack.
    The more the leaves start maturing, the closer they get in contact with the soil and, of course, the easier it is for the fungi to make them a host.
  4. Downy Mildew: This disease may be more common than you think because your plant is often in danger based on the prevailing environmental conditions. You see, if you live in a region where it gets hot and there is high humidity during the day, then the temperatures dip at night, your lettuce becomes even more vulnerable to the disease, and it will show via molds and spots beneath the leaves and wilting.
  5. Drop: If at one point you start noticing something wrong with the leaves of your lettuce, where they just start falling out of nowhere, that could be a sign of drop infection. Initially, the disease targets the older leaves that start wilting, and the younger ones gradually start falling off around the plant.

Disease Prevention and Treatment: How To Stop Lettuce Plant Disease

Imagine spending your time and money taking care of your lettuce only to lose it to diseases. It is a gardener’s worst nightmare, and that is why you need to do whatever you can to make sure that the diseases find no room to attack, and even in the case that they do, you should know what the remedies are to either save your plant or the rest of the garden.

First and foremost, you want to know how to prevent these deadly lettuce diseases.

It basically starts with choosing the best disease-resistant lettuce varieties and seeds because at least you will be sure that they will be able to fight off any threatening disease. Next, during the entire planting process, you want to be very careful when it comes to hygiene, be it when you are planting or disinfecting your garden tools.

In addition to that, you have to make sure that there is proper air circulation between plants by spacing them out, otherwise, they will grow too overcrowded. It may also help if you place your crops on at least a 5-year cycle.

Some gardeners also start by watering their plants in the morning, not later in the day when it gets too hot. On the same note, it is crucial to make sure that you never water your lettuce overhead; it has to be directly on the ground level.

Back-splashing of water onto the lettuce is one of the fastest ways to introduce diseases from the soil onto the plants. If you want to treat these diseases in the most organic way possible, isolation is the only method.

Immediately after you spot a disease, you have to take the necessary precautions.

You have to sever the affected part, and considering how the lettuce grows, there are high chances that the disease will affect an entire head. That is why, in most cases, you will have to remove an entire lettuce to keep the rest safe, and once you do that, place the affected parts in a plastic bag and dispose of them.

Is Lettuce a Great Choice for Home Vegetable Gardening?

Check any list of the best options to plant in your vegetable garden and see that the lettuce plant easily takes the top spots.14 And here are but a few reasons why you should consider planting it.

  1. They are some of the simplest plants you can grow; they don’t need too much attention, making them perfect for first-timers.
  2. They have a surprisingly fast rate of growth because they need a maximum of 8 weeks before they are ready for harvesting.
  3. You will be sure of a steady supply of your leafy greens. Simply remove the ones growing on the outside and give those growing inside more time to grow.
  4. The lettuce doesn’t have to grow on a massive farm. Just a small kitchen garden space will do; even containers are just perfect.
  5. With the lettuce growing in your home, you will be certain to get your greens in their purest form, and it helps contribute to the low carbon footprint of vegan diet, perfect when you are cautious about what you eat.

Lettuce Plant Facts

There are some fascinating pieces of information you should know about if you are going to plant lettuce.

  1. The lettuce actually started growing as a type of weed around and near the Mediterranean Sea.
  2. In ancient times in Egypt, lettuce was grown and revered as a fertility symbol.
  3. Christopher Columbus was the first to introduce lettuce to America.
  4. Fast forward to today, the lettuce is next in line as the most common vegetable grown in the US, only beaten by the potato.
  5. Around 70% of all lettuce that is found in the US comes from California, and 75% of all of them are iceberg lettuce.
  6. Does the family name Asteraceae sound familiar? That’s because it is the same family that the sunflower belongs to.
    So, that technically means that the lettuce plant and sunflower are closely related.
  7. Unlike other plants where you can’t wait to see the flowers, the lettuce is different because the minute the flowers show up, the leaves become too bitter, and the plant doesn’t grow anymore.
  8. Wondering why some gardeners are inclined more to the dark types of lettuce? It is because they are richer in vitamins and minerals in comparison to other types that are more pale.
  9. Did you know that an American eats an average of 30 pounds of lettuce in a single year?

Lettuce is definitely one of the most popular vegetables that you are going to find in kitchens all over the country, and now, more and more people are planting them right in their gardens.

Craving a lettuce wrap, burger, or Caesar salad? That means that you are a huge fan of this tasty, crispy vegetable, and what is even better than having a steady, constant supply right in your home?

Seems a little overwhelming because you are a beginner; not to worry, because this veggie is probably the easiest to plant than any other that you can think of. It also helps that it grows astonishingly fast; a month is enough between planting seeds and harvesting, and who wouldn’t want that?

If you are not good at being very patient with planting or get too busy to carry out routine maintenance but still want nothing but the best, the lettuce plant is an excellent choice.

Frequently Asked Questions About Lettuce Plant

Does Lettuce Need Full Sun?

Of course, the lettuce needs full sun; the only problem is that it enjoys colder temperatures, which basically means that extreme heat from the sum may be a problem, leading to complications like bolting. While you are providing the recommended 6 hours of sunlight in a single day, you also want to make sure that there is a little bit of shading when it gets too hot.

Can Lettuce Grow All Year Round?

It is possible to grow the lettuce all through the year only as long as the conditions remain favorable the entire time.

For instance, if you live in a warmer region, you will be able to plant your lettuce even when it is winter and find a way to shade the plants when it gets too hot.

So, technically, it is possible depending on the planting zone and the weather experienced.

Is a Lettuce Farm Worth It?

There are so many reasons in support of growing lettuce, not just for subsistence use, maybe in your garden, but also in large scale in the case of commercial farming. Lettuce plantations have proven time and again to be very profitable because the market for the plant is massive, and it helps that it grows at an extremely fast rate, so you most likely won’t be waiting too long like with other crops.


1Boeckmann, C. (2023, September 7). Growing Lettuce: Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Lettuce. The Old Farmer’s Almanac. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

2D’Amico, T. (2023). 15 of the Best Lettuce Varieties to Grow for Backyard Gardeners. Garden and Happy. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

3Growing Lettuce: A Guide to Planting & Harvesting Lettuce. (2023). Gilmour. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

4Growing Lettuce: How to Plant, Protect and Harvest Lettuce. (2022, September 7). Homestead and Chill. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

5Hawk, J. (2023, July 16). How To Grow And Care For Lettuce. Southern Living. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

6Hicks, K. (2020, March 13). 29 of the Best Lettuce Varieties For Your Garden. Gardener’s Path. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

7Iannotti, M. (2022, March 24). How to Grow Lettuce. The Spruce. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

8Juneja, T. (2023, July 11). 4 main types of lettuce (categories and popular varieties). Home for the Harvest. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

9Landers, L. (2023, August 24). 10 Best Lettuce Companion Plants to Grow Together. Better Homes & Gardens. Retrieved September 13, 2023, fromNoyes, A. (2022, April 24). 19 Different Types Of Lettuce Varieties For Your Garden. Gardening Chores. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

10Noyes, A. (2022, April 24). 19 Different Types Of Lettuce Varieties For Your Garden. Gardening Chores. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

11Prizehead Lettuce: How to Grow and Enjoy These Delicious Greens – Minneopa Orchards. (2023, January 16). Minnetonka Orchards. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

12Spicer, K. (2021, September 16). How to Identify and Prevent Common Lettuce Diseases. Gardener’s Path. Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

13When to Plant Lettuce: Master the Art of Continuous Harvest for Garden-Fresh Salads! (2023, April 25). Retrieved September 13, 2023, from <>

14Meyer, E. Lactuca sativa (Butterhead, Butterheads, Cos, Head Lettuce, Lactuca, Leaf Lettuce, Lettuce, Lettuces, Romaine, Romaines) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

15How to Grow Lettuce. (2020, April 24). Illinois Extension. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

16Mahaffey, F. Growing Lettuce in Containers. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

17Sanders, D. Lettuce | NC State Extension Publications. NC State Extension Publications. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

18Growing Lettuce. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

19Frost dates and spring vegetable planting. (2023, April 15). Illinois Extension. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

20Westerfield, B., & Todd, A. Home Garden Lettuce | UGA Cooperative Extension. UGA Extension. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

21John M. Bibb. ExploreKYHistory. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

22Lettuce. Wikipedia. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <> Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

24Heat Tolerant Lettuce Varieties and Preparing for Fall Lettuce Planting | Weekly Crop Update. (2023, July 21). WordPress at UD |. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

25Romaine lettuce. Wikipedia. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

26HS658/MV125: Romaine—Lactuca sativa L. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

27Lettuce | Commercial and Specialty Crop Guides. Aggie Horticulture. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

28Tong, C., Schuh, M., & MacKenzie, J. Growing tomatoes in home gardens | UMN Extension. University of Minnesota Extension. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

29Calendula, Calendula officinalis – Wisconsin Horticulture. Wisconsin Horticulture. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

30HARVEST GUIDES. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

31Capinera, J. L., Wasik, D., & Medley, J. beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). Entomology and Nematology Department. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

32Lettuce Mosaic. UC IPM. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

33Lettuce Disease Management – UF/IFAS Extension: Solutions for Your Life. UF/IFAS Extension. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from <>

34Natural List. (2016, April 13). Zones 5-6 Planting Schedule. The University of Vermont. Retrieved September 28, 2023, from <>


Sasint. Greenhouse Agriculture Aquaculture – Free photo on Pixabay. Pixabay. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from

36Jennifer Dickert. (2023, September 28). Newly seeded lettuce. Flickr.



Forest and Kim Starr. Starr-080812-9690-Lactuca_sativa-Manoa_and_Romaine_in_pots-Makawao-Maui. Flickr.


38wuestenigel. Roman lettuce plantation. Flickr. <>


Alan Levine. Future salad. Flickr.


40Jeremy Bronson. Grand Rapids lettuce. Flickr. <>

41By Photo by and (c)2014 Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) – Self-photographed, GFDL 1.2, <>


File:Lactuca sativa ‘Yugoslavian red’ Head.JPG. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from


43Ivy Dawned. Bibb lettuce catching the light. Flickr. <>

44Dwight Sipler. Lettuce. Flickr. <>

45By en:User:Geographer – enwiki, CC BY 1.0, <>

46el cajon yacht club. Lettuce 20230115_084809. Flickr. <>

47Jeff Aldrich. Forellenschluss lettuce. (n.d.). Flickr. <>

48Scot Nelson. Mizuna lettuce: Leaf spots and blight. Flickr. <>

49Food Lactuca Sativa Vegetable Plant Photo by Diana Cherry (Cherrylafoto). (2018, March 22) / Pixabay Content License. Cropped and added text, shape, and background elements. Pixabay. Retrieved February 26, 2024, from <>