Blue False Indigo Growing Guide: Wild Indigo Planting, ID and Care Tips

Georgette Kilgore headshot, wearing 8 Billion Trees shirt with forest in the background.Written by Georgette Kilgore

Gardening | March 28, 2024

Man looking at growing blue false indigo plant after learning how to identify types of baptisia and planting and growing blue false indigo flowers for landscaping and pollinators.

Blue False Indigo (Baptisia australis), also called Blue Wild Indigo, False Indigo or Rattlebush, is a popular native flowering perennial cherished for its upright habit, lush foliage, and vibrant indigo blue blossoms.

As the 2010 Perennial Plant of the Year,2 this adaptable plant brightens up any sunny garden with flowers and foliage.

This hardy plant has been cultivated for centuries, valued both for its rich dyes and medicinal uses. Today it is popular for its low-maintenance qualities and ability to thrive in a wide range of climates and soil types with minimal care.

When given the right growing conditions, Blue False Indigo will readily spread to form a lush colony of vibrant spring color that supports pollinators (including various types of butterflies) and adds architectural beauty to home gardens long after the blooms have faded.

In this comprehensive Blue False Indigo growing guide, you’ll learn all about False Indigo’s ideal planting sites, soil needs, propagation methods, bloom time, companion plants, and care tips for these wild indigo beauties to establish gorgeously in your own landscape.

Introduction to the Blue False Indigo Plant: An Overview of Baptisia australis

Blue False Indigo (Baptisia australis) is a herbaceous perennial legume that occurs across eastern and central North America. This adaptable plant thrives in open woods, thickets, prairies, plains, and meadows.

Blue False Indigo

(Baptisia australis)

Blue False Indigo in an oval frame on a green background.
  • Family: Fabaceae
  • Genus: Baptisia
  • Leaf: Blue-green, trifoliate leaves up to 2 inches long with entire margins. Alternate along stems and turn black when dried.
  • Seed: Small, dark brown kidney-shaped seeds inside puffy black seed pods up to 2.5 inches long.
  • Blossoms: Bright indigo-blue pea-like flowers with 5 fused petals arranged in upright 12 to 18-inch-long terminal racemes blooming in late spring.
  • Native Habitat: Woodland edges, prairies, meadows, and open forests. Native to central and eastern North America.
  • Height: 3 to 4 feet
  • Type: Herbaceous perennial
  • Native Growing Zone: USDA zones 3 to 9

Known for its bright indigo-blue, pea-like flowers borne on tall spikes in late spring, it remains attractive all season long with its blue-green trifoliate leaves. The blue flowers and purple flowers give way to puffy black seed pods that rattle with loose brown seeds in late summer.

It is no surprise that this plant was named the 1992 NC Wildflower of the Year.3

Baptisia plants form slowly expanding clumps up to 4 feet tall and wide, taking on a vase-shaped habit. The extensive root system helps it tolerate drought, poor soils, and other challenging growing conditions.

Well-behaved in the garden, Baptisia mixes well with other prairie plants and backyard garden favorites. Give it room to spread and this tough beauty will flourish for years with minimal care.

How To Identify Blue False Indigo: Blue False Indigo Facts

There are many reasons why this award-winning hardy plant continues to be a favorite in landscape gardening. Generally, mature plants reach 3 to 5 feet tall and wide and take on a vase-shaped, multi-stemmed shrub appearance.

Graphic showing how to identify blue false indigo, featuring images of Blue False Indigo leaves, Blue False Indigo flowers, and Blue False Indigo seeds with text labels.

Below are some defining Blue False Indigo facts that make this glorious plant stand out.1

Blue False Indigo Leaves

The alternate, smooth-margined leaves comprise three oblong leaflets giving them a clover-like look. The leaflets are between 1 to 2 inches long, smooth-edged with a rounded tip.

New spring growth emerges with a reddish cast before maturing to bluish-green which then remains attractive all summer before blackening with fall frosts. The stout, upright stems remain mostly unbranched.

Blue False Indigo Flowers

From late spring into early summer, showy blue, purple, or white pea-like blossoms develop in upright, terminal spikes ranging from 4-16 inches long. Each individual 1-inch flower has 5 fused petals with 10 prominent stamens tipped in yellow.

They dangle downward from short pedicels along the elongated racemes which rise well above the foliage.

Blue False Indigo Seeds

Once finished blooming, inflated seed pods develop, starting green and ripening to black by late summer. They split open when mature in fall to spill out small dark brown seeds that rattle inside, giving rise to common names like Rattlebush.

Blue False Indigo Roots

Baptisia develops an extensive deep taproot and is not transplant-friendly. This helps make it extremely drought-tolerant once established.

Take care not to disturb its root system.

Growing a Blue False Indigo From a Seed, Cutting, and Seedling

Getting Blue False Indigo established in the right spot sets the tone for years of vigorous growth and prolific flowering. Follow these planting tips for Blue False Indigo:

  • Location: Select a site with full sun to light afternoon shade and organically rich, well-draining soil. Near borders, foundations or fences offers vertical structure.
  • Spacing: How far apart to plant Blue False Indigo? Allow at least 3 feet between young plants to accommodate mature dimensions reaching 4 feet tall and wide.
  • Planting: Time Early spring planting allows roots to develop before summer heat. Alternatively, you can plant container-grown plants anytime during the growing season.
  • Planting Process: Dig holes twice as wide as the root ball, refilling with enriched native soil. Set the crown at soil level and firm the area around transplants before watering thoroughly.
  • Maintenance: Install stakes around plants in windy areas until the root system establishes. Apply 2 to 3 inches of shredded bark mulch to conserve moisture and reduce weeds.

Once planted, take care not to disturb Blue False Indigo’s roots which resent disturbance. Also beware of its toxicity and keep kids and pets away from planting beds.

By understanding where to site Blue False Indigo and how to plant it properly, you can enjoy this rugged native flower for years to come. Next, let’s explore how to grow Baptisia from seeds, cuttings, or division.

Propagating Blue False Indigo

While baptisia spreads slowly on its own via underground rhizomes, propagating from seed, cuttings, or division speeds up the process.1 Here’s how:

How To Plant Blue False Indigo From Root Divisions

The best way to propagate Blue False Indigo is by dividing mature plants in early spring or fall. Follow these simple steps:

  1. Dig up part of a 3 to 5-year-old clump in early spring as new growth begins emerging. Keep as much soil intact around roots as possible.
  2. Gently shake or wash off excess soil to expose roots.
  3. Carefully separate individual shoots with roots attached using a sharp knife or garden fork, taking care not to break the fleshy taproots.
  4. Immediately replant root divisions 12 to 18 inches apart in prepared garden beds enriched with compost.
  5. Water newly planted shoots daily the first week, then weekly for 8 to 10 weeks until well established.
  6. Apply 2 to 3 inches of organic mulch around transplants to retain soil moisture and reduce weeds.

Transplants should begin flowering by the second season. That said, avoid frequent division as the long taproot resents disturbance.

A close-up of the purple blooms of a Blue False Indigo plant.

(Image by: Kirsten Hughes7)

Instead, propagate from seeds or stem cuttings for expanding your False Indigo collection.

How To Grow Blue False Indigo From Seeds

Though slow, you can propagate from freshly harvested seeds in late summer. Here are the steps:

  1. Allow seed pods to ripen completely on the plants until they turn black and rattle.
  2. Twist pods off stems and break them open to remove seeds once the outer casing is brittle.
  3. Lightly sand seeds with fine grit sandpaper to nick the hard outer shell.
  4. Sow seeds 1⁄4-1⁄2 inch deep either outdoors in prepared garden beds in fall or indoors 6-8 weeks before last spring frost.
  5. Maintain even moisture until seeds germinate, which is erratic but generally occurs within 2-4 weeks.
  6. Thin or transplant seedlings 18-24 inches apart once they reach 6 inches tall.

Expect flowers by year three from seeds. Site preparation and follow-up care is vital for seeds and transplants to thrive.

Growing Blue False Indigo From Cuttings

New plants can also be started from softwood cuttings collected while tips are still young and flexible:

  1. Clip a 4 to 6-inch stem right below a leaf node. Remove the lower leaves.
  2. Dip cut end in rooting hormone powder to stimulate root growth.
  3. Plant cutting halfway into a pot filled with seed starting mix, perlite or vermiculite.
  4. Cover pot with a plastic bag to retain humidity, place somewhere warm and bright but out of direct sun.
  5. Monitor moisture and transplant successfully rooted cuttings into garden beds after last frost.

Transplanting Established Plants

When transplanting mature Baptisia plants, carefully dig up the entire root system without damage and replant immediately at the same depth in prepared soil.

Keep well-watered until the extensive roots re-establish. Transplant in early spring or fall.

Best Growing Conditions for Growing Blue False Indigo

Here are the ideal growing conditions to ensure success with False Indigo:4

Sun Exposure

Blue False Indigo thrives in conditions ranging from full sun to partial shade. How much sunlight does Blue False Indigo need each day?

Blue False Indigo flowers best in a spot receiving six hours of direct sun but tolerates light afternoon shade. At least six hours of direct sun is best.

A site with morning sun and afternoon shade also works in hot climates. Too much shade causes flopping.


Blue False Indigo thrives in well-draining soil, average to poor fertility. Blue False Indigo thrives in organically rich, sandy, loam or clay soil with good drainage.

However, it is also tolerant of poor, dry soils but extended moisture is needed for establishment. Improve dense soils by mixing compost at planting time.


Blue False Indigo requires no additional fertilization. Avoid excess fertilizer which causes leggy, floppy growth.

This nitrogen fixing plant creates its own.

pH Range

Blue False Indigo performs best in slightly acidic to neutral soil pH levels between 6.0 and 7.2.

Watering Needs

Blue False Indigo thrives with average moisture and is notably drought tolerant. Watering needs for Blue False Indigo plants involve weekly deep watering for the first-year aids root development.

After they are established, it is sufficient to water them occasionally, except in conditions of drought. Mature plants typically tolerate drought but flower best with average moisture.


Blue False Indigo is heat and humidity tolerant. Blue False Indigo prefers cooler climates over hot humid southern zones.

In hot, humid gardens, it should be planted in partial shade with good airflow.

Growing Zones and Native Range for the Blue False Indigo Plant (Blue Wild Indigo Plant)

In the wild, Blue False Indigo grows across central and eastern North America.4 Its native habitat centers around woodland edges, open meadows, thickets, stream banks and prairie lands.

Natural stands occur from:

  • Southeastern Canada (Ontario)
  • Eastern seaboard from Maine to Florida
  • Inland eastern states as far west as Oklahoma
  • Ranging north to Minnesota and eastern Nebraska

A western variety known as B. australis var. minor with slightly smaller flowers extends from Missouri west to Colorado and south to Texas.

For gardens, note that Blue False Indigo grows wonderfully as an herbaceous perennial across USDA planting zones 3 through 9.1 This covers most of the continental United States, with the exception of the hottest southern regions.

USDA Blue False Indigo Growing Zones

The following are the most favorable growing zones for Blue False Indigo (where to grow):

  • Zones 3 to 4: Withstands icy winters as cold as -30°F. Provide insulation like mulch.
  • Zones 5 to 6: Grows well in cooler climates of northeast, Great Lakes region, interior northwest.
  • Zones 7 to 8: Tolerates hot and humid southeastern summers. Must have afternoon shade.
  • Zone 9: Does well in areas like California and Gulf states. Ensure adequate irrigation.

Wherever you garden, choose a site with full sun and well-drained soil for best growth. Morning sunlight is essential even in the warmest zones.

Hot afternoons can scorch Baptisia’s foliage without adequate air circulation.

When To Plant Blue False Indigo

Blue False Indigo grows best when planted in early spring or fall while dormant.5 Spring planting just after the last frost allows roots to develop before summer heat and is regarded as the best option on when to plant Blue False Indigo for the best yield.

A delicate cluster of Blue False Indigo flowers captured in soft focus against a blurred green background.

(Image by: Kirsten Hughes8)

Fall planting prior to a hard freeze gives plants a head start to establish before winter dormancy. While potted plants can be planted anytime in the growing season, it’s best to stick to spring or fall for bare root sections.

Here is an overview of the ideal planting times:

  • Early spring: The most ideal window is early spring once the soil has thawed and daytime temperatures reach 50°F. This gives the roots a few months to develop before summer heat.
  • Early fall: September through October is prime time for fall planting before the ground freezes. Growth starts again next spring.
  • Summer: Nursery container plants can also be planted anytime during the growing season with extra watering while establishing.

When Does Blue False Indigo Bloom?

One of the earliest perennials to wake up in spring, Blue False Indigo flowers for just two to three glorious weeks just after foliage appears.

The flowering season is short but spectacular. Flower timing varies slightly across its hardiness range:

  • Zones 3-4: Late May-Early June
  • Zones 5-6: Mid to Late May
  • Zones 7-8: Early to Mid-May
  • Zones 9+: April

Although the individual indigo flowers last around 2 weeks upon opening. But the successive waves of blooms along the tall spires prolong the display for 4 to 6 glorious weeks.

Flowering lasts longer in cooler climates. Deadhead blooms to encourage potential re-blooming later in summer although the biggest floral display occurs in late spring.

Plant Blue False Indigo among other late spring bloomers like bearded iris, alliums and salvia for a complementary effect.

Caring for Blue False Indigo Plants

Easy-care Blue False Indigo plants require minimal ongoing maintenance.5 Just follow these simple care tips:

  • Watering: Drought resistance makes Baptisia quite resilient, though occasional deep watering encourages growth and flowering. Established plants require consistent irrigation.
    Mature plants only need supplemental water during extended dry periods. Take care not to overwater.
  • Pruning: Although regular pruning is not required, be sure to cut back dead stems to the ground in late fall or early spring. Remove spent blooms to promote reblooming if desired.
  • Fertilizer: Avoid fertilizer which creates lanky growth prone to flopping over. Top dress around plants with compost or organic matter to lightly feed over time.
  • Mulching: Replenish the mulch ring in spring, using 2 to 3 inches of organic matter to retain moisture and control weeds.
  • Division: Dig up and divide dense, older plants every 3 to 5 years in early fall and immediately replanting to rejuvenate growth.
  • Supporting: Staking younger plants helps counteract flopping until the root system expands. Installing small hoop structures around plants combats heavy winds in exposed sites.

With the right growing conditions suited to its native habitat, Blue False Indigo practically takes care of itself!

Ideal Companion Plants for Growing Blue False Indigo

The statuesque form and vivid indigo floral display of Blue False Indigo complements just about any flowering perennial.1 Its vertical form contrasts beautifully with mounded or creeping plants.

A vibrant stem of Blue False Indigo blooms with its rich purple petals against a lush green background.

(Image by: Annette Meyer9)

Consider combining Blue False Indigo with:

  • Catmint (Nepeta): Flowers simultaneously in spring with spikes of blue or white flowers above aromatic foliage.
  • Salvias: Vivid red, blue or purple flower spikes bloom alongside or after Blue False Indigo fading in early summer. Evergreen foliage remains all season.
  • Yarrows (Achillea): Flat-topped flowers in shades of red, yellow, white or pink. Feathery aromatic foliage and drought tolerant once established.
  • Coneflowers (Echinacea): Bold daisy-like purple flowers lasting from early summer into fall supported by sturdy stems with coarse leaves. Great for pollinators including various types of bees.
  • Ornamental grasses: Upright grass foliage sways gracefully in the breeze, their movement contrasting nicely with the strong stems of Blue False Indigo. Examples include switch grass (Panicum virgatum) or blue fescue grass (Festuca glauca).

Other options include:

  • Astilbes: Upright plumes balance the low rounded habit
  • Hellebores: Early bloomers to extend the floral display
  • Hostas: Contrasting leaves, similar cultural needs
  • Lady’s mantle: Chartreuse leaves brighten shady areas nearby
  • Ferns: Mix with native wood ferns for natural woodland vignettes
  • Iris: Tall bearded iris picks up the blue tones wonderfully

By combining Blue False Indigo with other easy-care late spring and early summer bloomers sharing similar sunlight and soil preferences, (including the sunflower plant), you can create a hassle-free garden fit for pollinators and garden admirers alike.

The contrasting textures and color combinations also help highlight the unique leaves and form of Baptisia. The contrast when planted with other plants that attract hummingbirds and other pollinators is a sight to behold.

Pests, Diseases, and Problems Affecting Blue False Indigo

When provided with suitable growing conditions, Baptisia plants remain mostly pest and disease-free.

A lone stalk of Baptisia australis emerges amidst lush, green foliage in a natural setting.

(Image by: Yann Kemper10)

However, watch for the following potential problems:5


Below are the common pests of the Blue False Indigo plant:

  1. Weevils: Burrow into seed pods
  2. Spider Mites: Cause stippling damage on foliage
  3. Thrips: Skeletonize leaves
  4. Aphids: Distort growth
  5. Leaf Beetles: Skeletonize leaves


Below are the common diseases of the Blue False Indigo plant:

  1. Leaf spot: Small tan lesions on foliage that spreads rapidly in humid, poor air circulation areas
  2. Powdery mildew: White fungal coating on leaves that worsens in shade/humidity
  3. Southern blight: Sudden wilting
  4. Rust: Yellow spots on leaves become brown blisters that release orange spores.


Below are the common problems of the Blue False Indigo plant:

  1. Flopping stems
  2. Failure to bloom

How To Stop Blue False Indigo Diseases, Pests and Problems

Here are some Blue False Indigo disease prevention strategies you can use to address common diseases, pests and problems affecting the Blue False Indigo plant including natural pest control for Blue False Indigo.

Pest Control

For controlling pests in Blue False Indigo, the following tips can be useful:

  1. Aphids: Treat visible colonies with insecticidal soap spray. Ladybugs and lacewings will feed on them.
  2. Spider Mites: Identify stippling damage and webbing on foliage. Remove with strong water streams or apply neem oil.
  3. Weevils: Simply refrain from planting potentially infected seeds. Remove and destroy infected pods.
  4. Thrips: Apply appropriate pesticide if infestation is severe.

Disease Prevention

To prevent diseases in Blue False Indigo, consider implementing these tips:

  1. Leaf Spot: Water plants at the base avoiding wet foliage to reduce infections. Remove and destroy affected foliage.
  2. Powdery Mildew: Improve air circulation and reduce shade or crowding to alleviate issues with powdery residues on leaves and stems.
  3. Rust: Space plants properly and remove infected leaves. Avoid overhead watering and promote airflow.

How To Avoid Problems

To avoid issues with Blue False Indigo, consider these effective strategies:

  1. Flopping stems: Stake leggy plants growing in too much shade.
  2. Failure to bloom: Ensure a sunnier site and don’t over-fertilize.

Blue False Indigo Varieties

While Blue False Indigo (Baptisia australis) is the most common type, some named selections and hybrid cultivars offer more compact sizes or different flower colors:1

  • Baptisia x variicolor ‘Twilight’: Vivid bicolor violet-purple and yellow flowers on sturdy 36 to 42-inch plants.
  • Baptisia ‘Purple Smoke’: Smoky violet blooms with a deep plum eye. Compact at 2-3 feet tall.
  • Baptisia ‘Carolina Moonlight’: Lemon yellow flowers in late spring on plants reaching 3 feet tall and wide.
  • Baptisia sphaerocarpa ‘Screaming Yellow’: Bright golden flower spikes on 2 to 3-foot plants blooming in early summer.
  • Baptisia x ‘Midnight’: Extremely long indigo flower racemes on strong plants growing to 5 feet.

Alongside hybrids, there are local selections that offer slight variations on the commonly available types. They are:

  • Baptisia australis var. aberrans: Dry soil tolerant strain native to limestone glades with unique blue-green foliage.
  • Baptisia australis var. minor: A more compact native variety under 2 feet tall perfect for rock gardens.
A variety of Baptisia plant with its yellow flowers in a field.

(Image by: Martha Richeson12)

The gorgeous flowers, easy care nature, and excellent drought and pest resistance of Baptisia australis make it a favorite perennial.

Uses of Blue False Indigo Plants

Beyond impressive floral displays, Blue False Indigo lends ample ornamental value to gardens and landscapes:5

  • Vertical Accent: Tall spires punctuate borders, herb gardens and meadow planting.
  • Specimen Planting: Striking focal point for island beds or slope plantings.
  • Erosion Control: Extensive root system secures erosion prone banks.
  • Screens/Hedges: Dense shrubby foliage fills in spaces with blue-green texture. Blend with elderberry, chokeberry or other natives.
  • Cut Flowers: Fragrant indigo blooms brighten fresh-cut arrangements.
  • Dried Arrangements: Prominent black seed pods mix nicely with ornamental grasses or dried branches.
  • Butterfly Gardens: Caters to butterflies, bees and hummingbirds.

For challenging dry slopes, foundation plantings, or garden accents, turn to tough yet graceful Blue False Indigo. The radiant types of white flowers as well as blue and purple flowers create a multi-season appeal that can brighten any setting.

A slender stem of Blue Wild Indigo blooms with purple flowers against a backdrop of green grass and leaves.

(Image by: Jacob Friend11)

Beyond ornamental appeal, Blue False Indigo has served various purposes over the centuries:6

  • Dye Production: The genus name Baptisia comes from the Greek word bapto meaning “to dye.”6
    American Indians and early settlers used plant extracts as a blue dye. Though less vivid than true indigo, it was more readily available.
  • Traditional Medicine: Native tribes made medicinal teas from the roots to induce vomiting and treat infections.
    Poultices were applied to alleviate inflammation and toothaches. However, the plant is mildly toxic to humans.
  • Wildlife Support: Butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds feast on the nectar-rich flowers. Larvae of certain moths and skippers feed on the foliage.
    Birds and small mammals eat the protein-packed seeds.
  • Modern Applications: The USDA now studies Baptisia species as potential cover crops, forages, and soil enrichment plants. Their deep root systems also help remediate soils.

While appreciation has evolved over time, Blue False Indigo remains a valuable North American native species, supporting biodiversity in wilderness and gardens alike.

Blue False Indigo Flower Meaning and Symbolism

The blue flowers and foliage turning black in fall lends rich symbolism to this plant. Like many blue blossoms, the cheery color echoes feelings of tranquility and spirituality.6 Since medieval times, blue flowers represent trust, loyalty and longing.

In the Victorian era, genteel ladies often gave nosegays of blue flowers to inspire faithfulness and strengthen new relationships. Their refined nature yet hardy resilience reflects grace under pressure.

The dying foliage represents letting go and rebirth. As leaves turn nearly black in fall then disappear, it reminds us of the natural cycle of life, death and rejuvenation the following spring.

Truly an inspirational addition to any garden!

Toxicity of Blue False Indigo

While enchantingly beautiful, Blue False Indigo does contain poisonous compounds that can cause unpleasant reactions if ingested, especially the seeds and roots. The main toxins include the alkaloids baptisin and cytisine,1 which impact the nervous system.

Symptoms may include abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, confusion and difficulty breathing in severe cases. Thankfully, fatal toxicity is extremely rare in humans. But contact a poison control center if ingested.

To enjoy safely in your landscape, plant Blue False Indigo away from edible vegetable gardens and areas frequented by unsupervised children or pets.

Use caution when handling and take care to wash hands thoroughly after working with any part of the plant to avoid accidental exposure from touching eyes or mouth.

The perfect hardy perennial for low maintenance landscapes, Blue False Indigo offers striking spring color followed by architectural seed heads.

Able to thrive in a wide range of climates and soils, Baptisia makes a beautiful addition to gardens and meadows where it can spread its deep roots undisturbed.

Just be sure to give Blue False Indigo plenty of space and site carefully to control its wandering ways.

Frequently Asked Questions About Blue False Indigo

What Is the Blue False Indigo Growth Rate? How Long It Takes To Grow Blue False Indigo?

This perennial wildflower takes its time to settle, requiring 1-2 years to establish and then flowering as it matures around the age of 3 years. Once settled, plants live for decades, gradually expanding in girth and reach unlike annual flowers.

Why Is My Blue False Indigo Drooping?

Leggy, floppy stems are often a sign of excessive shade; pruning surrounding plants to allow more sunlight can address this issue. Additionally, cutting the plants back by half after they flower can help promote a bushier growth habit, as insufficient sunlight is a common cause of flopping.

How Do I Stop Blue False Indigo From Spreading?

This wildflower extends its reach gradually through underground rhizomes; to keep it contained, install a border trench around garden beds, using durable materials like thick plastic or metal flashing. Regular pruning of stray shoots and thoughtful placement with sufficient space between plants are key to managing its spread.


1N.C. Cooperative Extension. (2024). Baptisia australis. NC State Extension. Retrieved January 19, 2023, from <>

2Lerner, R. (2024). Baptisia australis Perennial of the Year for 2010. Purdue University. Retrieved January 19, 2024, from <>

3North Carolina Botanical Garden. (2024). NC Wildflower of the Year. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Retrieved January 19, 2024, from <>

4Hilty, J. (2018). Blue Wild Indigo. Prairie Wildflowers of Illinois. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>

5Mahr, S. (2024). Blue False Indigo, Baptisia australis. University of Wisconsin Division of Extension. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>

6UIC Heritage Garden. (2024). False Indigo (Baptisa australis). UIC Heritage Garden. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>

7Blue False Indigo Flowers Plant Photo by Kirsten Hughes. (2020, September 13) / Pixabay Content License. Resized and changed format. Pixabay. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>

8Flower of Blue False Indigo Photo by Kirsten Hughes. (2020, September 13) / Pixabay Content License. Resized and changed format. Pixabay. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>

9Blue Dye Sleeve Lupine Fake Indigo Photo by Annette Meyer. (2023, July 13) / Pixabay Content License. Resized and changed format. Pixabay. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>

10Tall Blue Wild Indigo Baptisia australis Photo by Yann Kemper. (2021, May) / CC0 1.0 DEED | CC0 1.0 Universal. Resized and changed format. iNaturalist. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>

11Baptisia australis Blue False Indigo Photo by Jacob Friend. (2023, May 31) / CC0 1.0 DEED | CC0 1.0 Universal. Resized and changed format. iNaturalist. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>

12Baptisia sphaerocarpa Photo by Martha Richeson. (2022, April 17) / CC0 1.0 DEED | CC0 1.0 Universal. Cropped, resized and changed format. iNaturalist. Retrieved January 22, 2024, from <>