25 Types of Black Eyed Susan: Grow and Care for Black Eyed Susan Flowers

Georgette Kilgore headshot, wearing 8 Billion Trees shirt with forest in the background.Written by Georgette Kilgore

Gardening | April 1, 2024

Woman looking at a field of black eyed susan flowers with her hands on her hips after learning how to identify and grow black eye susans.

If you are an absolute fan of the outdoors, you must be very familiar with the Black Eyed Susan, a plant known for its looks and how it heavily attracts pollinators.

Many will describe it as a welcoming flower that brightens up the dullest of days; it is no wonder you would want to have it growing right in your home. The thing about this striking plant is the fact that it has a unique look, a signature dark center that beautifully contrasts with the yellow petals, sort of reminding you of the bumblebee.

The search is over if you were on the lookout for the brightest of flowers that you can show off in your garden.

This complete guide shows you how to identify various types of Black Eyed Susan flowers and how to grow your own.

What Is the Black Eyed Susan Plant? (Rudbeckia hirta)

What you first see when glancing at the Black Eyed Susan plant (Rudbeckia hirta) is the bright yellow petals and their dark centers, but there is more beyond the charming looks. This wildflower that is native to the US is a common sight in gardens and is very well known for being easy to maintain, and its self-seeding properties only make it more appealing for those looking for lush flower gardens.

Black Eyed Susan

(Rudbeckia hirta)

Photo of the Black Eyed Susan in an oval frame on a green background.
  • Family: Asteraceae
  • Genus: Rudbeckia
  • Leaf: Alternate growth pattern, measure 10-18 cm long
  • Seeds: Contained in the dome-shaped head, black or charcoal gray when mature
  • Blossoms: Yellow, red and orange in color with a large black or brown dome in the middle
  • Native habitat: North America
  • Height: 1-5 feet
  • Type: Annual, perennial
  • Native growing zone: USDA Zones 3-9

Image Credit: Mike Goad (MikeGoad)27

The Black Eyed Susans grow to reach about 1-5 feet high, and heavily attract pollinators like various types of butterflies and bees, and who wouldn’t want that in their yard? It doesn’t seem to disappoint when it comes to its looks, with the petals that look like that of a daisy and the massive seed head.

There is just so much that you can do with the Black Eyed Susan, whether for landscaping, planting along borderlines, sprucing up your flower garden, or even confining it to a container.1

Black Eyed Susan Facts

If you find the Black-Eyed Susan fascinating, you will be thrilled to learn about some of its fun Black Eyed Susan facts:

  1. Did you know that it is believed that the name Black-Eyed Susan is derived from the title of a popular poem by John Gay, an English poet?
  2. As for the scientific name, Rudbeckia, honors Swedish father and son Olaus and Olof Rudbeck, while the term ‘hirta’ means hairy, which alludes to the plant’s hairy leaves.
  3. The Black Eyed Susan is known commonly as a symbol of justice.
  4. It has so many synonyms: brown-eyed Susan, yellow daisies, brown Betty, golden Jerusalem, yellow ox-eye daisy, and gloriosa daisy.
  5. Thanks to excessive hybridization, there are now various flower shades of Black Eyed Susan, coming in not only yellow but reds, browns, and oranges.
  6. As of 1918, the flower was named Maryland’s state flower.
  7. Native Americans used the plant for medical purposes; it helped with flu and colds and was an immunity boost.
  8. Thanks to its heavy self-seeding properties, you won’t really have to keep planting the Black Eyed Susan every single year,8 but the problem is that it can become invasive.

How To Identify Black Eyed Susan

There are so many types of flowers from all over the world, and it can be pretty confusing how to identify Black Eyed Susan from similar ones with the yellow and black look on the flowers.

Graphic that shows how to identify black eyed susan based on leaf, flower, and seed pod.

You need to have more distinguishing features to correctly identify a Black-Eyed Susan.

Black Eyed Susan Leaves

You should know that the leaves of the plant are quite elongated and could actually measure 2-7 inches long. Black Eyed Susan leaves are also more slim and lanceolate and tend to grow alternately along the stem.

Upon touching a leaf, you will also notice that the veins are more prominent, and the texture is sort of rough.

Black Eyed Susan Flower

Now, onto the most conspicuous part of the plant, the Black Eyed Susan flower, and maybe the main reason that you are so interested in it. Each stem grows and gives way to a single flower, one that you can spot from afar.

The petals take a deep yellow, orange, or red shade depending on the type, but the common feature is the fact that there is a massive bulging dome-like center that is black or brown right in the middle of the flower.

Black Eyed Susan Seeds

You see the massive dome in the middle, that is, the Black Eyed Susan seeds. When you chop off the flower, remove the petals, and are left with the dark head, you can collect the tiny dark seeds, although there will also be chaff in there.

You will need to know about this when you need seeds for planting.

Types of Black Eyed Susans To Plant

What makes the Black-Eyed Susan stand out even more is the fact that there is not just one simple look in every flower. What you get is a pool of so many hybrids that come in unique flower colors and designs, and you will be spoiled for choice when trying to settle for just one.

To start you off, here is a roundup of some of the most popular Black-Eyed Susan varieties or types of Black Eyed Susans.

1. Autumn Forest

There’s just so much character when it comes to this flower. It starts out a vivid yellow at the edges, then fades into a red, then brownish in the center.6

Its unique look is not just for landscaping, but you can also use them as cut displays.

Photo of several flowers of Autumn Forest with its bright yellow petals.

(Image: Sander van der Wel16)

2. Indian Summer

These flowers look just like daisies and are known for having really massive flower heads that can reach as large as 9 inches wide. The bright yellow or sometimes orange shades will look perfect in your home, no doubt.

3. Cherokee Sunset

Another rather dramatic flower is the Cherokee sunset, perfect if you want a mixture of colors in your garden. Imagine a flower that has a deep mahogany color in the middle and petals that transform from the shade red, to orange, then finally yellow at the tips.

Close up photo of the Cherokee Sunset showing its bundle of orange petals.

(Image: Dwight Sipler18)

Photo of two Capuccino flowers facing the sky.

(Image: C T Johansson.19)

4. Cappuccino

You would think that this 18-inch tall plant doesn’t really have much to offer until you actually see it growing in your space. It has exceptionally lush foliage and is actually drought tolerant, just a few of the reasons why it has won the Award of Garden Merit.

5. Prairie Sun

Do you want something a little different from the dark centers that many Black-Eyed Susan plants have? Then you will love the prairie sun.9

Its signature look is that the seed head takes a light green shade.

Top view photo of the Prairie Sun.

(Image: Parkerdr20)

Photo of the Iris Eyes about to bloom.

(Image: Calimo21)

6. Iris Eyes

Just like the Prairie Sun, the Iris eyes also have an odd-looking seed head, the same light green shade. But that doesn’t take away from the fact that it is also a gorgeous Black-Eyed Susan.

7. Moreno

What you get with this plant is either a black or deep purple center, and to make it pop out even more, the flowers sort of look like they have got brown and red rays leading to yellow petal tips.

Photo of a bundle of Cherry Brandy.

(Image: Paul Henjum22)

8. Cherry Brandy

If you already have yellow flowers and are looking to contrast them with a different color, look no further. Just from the name, you can tell that you will be growing bright red flowers that don’t look anything like the typical Black-Eyed Susan.

9. Maya

How about the most stunning double flowers you have ever seen? The Maya definitely doesn’t disappoint when you are looking for a unique Black-Eyed Susan that doesn’t have the traditional black and yellow look with huge single petals.

A photo of a lone purple black eyed susan plant in the middle of a grassy field.

(Image: USFWS Mountain-Prairie23)

10. Cut-Leaf Coneflower

There is something different about the Cut-Leaf Coneflower. Instead of each stem leading to a single flowerhead, this plant has 2-25 flowers on each stem!3

Exciting right? You get more flowers on each stalk, and you can imagine how that would look in your garden.

11. Double Golden Gloriosa

What a glorious display you will have with this one. The double flowers tend to have a bright red shade and make some of the best-cut flower displays that are also said to stay fresh longer than others.

Photo of the Gloriosa with its long yellow petals.

(Image: Krzysztof Ziarnek24)

12. Glitters Like Gold

The name glitters like gold really captures the essence of this Black-Eyed Susan. A plant with rich golden yellow flowers that bloom heavily; you can’t help but admire this one.

13. Goldsturm

If you are a huge fan of having cut flowers in vases in your home, you might want to take a second look at the goldsturm, there is something about its bright orange elongated flower petals.

14. Green Eyes

You will be amazed by how well the lemon-yellow colored flowers contrast nicely with the light green centers of this plant. It is definitely a type that you have to have growing in your flower garden.

15. Little Goldstar

The name is a perfect fit for this plant because its golden flower petals look exactly like tiny stars, and with this growing in your space, you will be adding a beautiful splash of color that you didn’t know you needed.

Photo of black eyed suzies planted in a garden.

(Image: David J. Stang25)

16. Little Suzy

Whatever the Little Suzy lacks when it comes to size, it certainly makes up for it with glam. It has prominent brownish-purple centers and popping bright yellow flower petals.

17. Marmalade

This is another stunning Black-Eyed Susan that you will never get enough of. It is perfect if you are looking for a plant that shines bright from the others, and the touch of orange against vivid orange will never disappoint.

18. Clasping Leaf Coneflower

Clasping Leaf Coneflower grows to about 24 inches tall and will be a show-stopper in your garden.10 It is also widely known for having an unusually huge elongated center, unlike its cousins.

19. Denver Daisy

Do you love the sunflower? Then the Denver Daisy will be at the very top of your list because it looks just like a sunflower with its dark red center and red and yellow petals that spread out straight from the flower head.

20. Early Bird Gold

This one will work perfectly for you if you are looking for a Black-Eyed Susan that grows massive. This one has signature golden yellow and dark brown colors and is a heavy attractor of pollinators.

21. Golden Glow

How about an extra tall Black-Eyed Susan? The golden glow is very well known for its impressive height, being able to reach around 7 feet tall,4 perfect for when you have a massive garden that you want to fill up.

Close up photo showing the long bright yellow bright petals.

(Image: Barnes Dr Thomas G26)

22. Green Wizards

Again, for those who want something a little different from the black and yellow signature look, you can always go for this flower that has an odd look. It stands out because it doesn’t really have the huge yellow flower petals; they are more reduced to look like tiny dots.

23. Kelvedon Star

Gorgeous is an understatement when it comes to this Black-Eyed Susan. It doesn’t take the traditional look because the flowers have mahogany centers that transfer to the flowers that end up taking the yellow at the tips.

24. Missouri Coneflower

If you are a huge fan of the signature look of the Black-Eyed Susan, you can always go for the Missouri Coneflower, which has all the unique features that you have grown to love about the plant.

25. Henry Eilers

Talking of Black-Eyed Susan plants that look out of the ordinary, you should see the Henry Eilers. Yes, it has a huge black center, but the flower petals look like sticks that link to the middle, giving it a look that you can’t help but stare at.

Close up photo showing long and thin yellow petals.

(Image: Krzysztof Ziarnek17)

How To Grow Black Eyed Susan: Methods of Planting Black Eyed Susans

Now that you know that there are so many Black-Eyed Susan varieties at your disposal, the next thing is to learn how to grow Black Eyed Susan. Once you have settled on the variety that will work best for you, here are some propagation methods to get you started.

Growing a Black Eyed Susan From a Seed

Although it is not really the most preferred way to go, you can start growing a Black Eyed Susan from a seed. The best time to start is at least 10 weeks before the last frost date, and you can start it indoors to sort of increase the chances of growth.

Take the seeds and plant them about ¼ an inch in a container with a wet starting mix.5 The germination should have started in 2-3 weeks, and with proper care, the seedling should be well established and ready for replanting outside.

Growing a Black Eyed Susan From a Cutting

Did you know that you can also start planting from cuttings? This is the perfect way to go if you want to avoid the lengthy waiting process of growing a Black Eyed Susan from a cutting.

All that you have to do is to take a 6-8 inch stem cut and place it in a jar with water. You should see roots in no time, and that will be your sign to transfer the cutting to a planter, and when established, you can move the Black-Eyed Susan outside.11

Growing Black Eyed Susan Seedlings

Are you worried that cuttings and seeds or Black Eyed Susan seedlings are demanding, or this is your very first time planting such a flower, no need to worry because this is the simplest method. Just go to the nearest nursery, pick a seedling, and go plant it in your home.

You will need to dig a hole that is just as big as the root ball, place the seedling inside, and backfill the hole, watering and caring for the seedling, and that is about it.

Planting Tips for Black Eyed Susan

Nothing comes close to the joy of planting your favorite flowers and watching them grow strong and tall. This is why you will need the planting tips for Black Eyed Susan below to make sure that you get it all right.

Where To Plant Black Eyed Susan

So, how much sunlight does Black Eyed Susan need each day? Of course, you want the most vibrant flowers growing in your garden, and that is why, no matter what you do, always make sure that your Black Eyed Susan is growing in the full sun in an open garden. Also, on where to plant Black Eyed Susan, check that the soil drains very well.

How To Space the Black Eyed Susan

Wondering how far apart to plant Black Eyed Susan? If you want to avoid unnecessary competition, you might want to consider giving at least an 18-inch space between plantings.

How Long It Takes To Grow Black Eyed Susan

Are you a little impatient because you want to see these stunning flowers in the shortest time possible, don’t worry, because you don’t really have to wait long with the Black-Eyed Susan. So, how long it takes to grow Black Eyed Susan? The seeds take days to germinate, but the plant will generally need up to 60 days to reach maturity.

Growing Zones for Black Eyed Susan

The best planting zones or growing zones for Black Eyed Susan will make sure that your Black-Eyed Susan is comfortable and actually thriving. Otherwise, it will be a struggle, and it will definitely show.

This is why for the best results, experts advise that you plant one in USDA hardiness zones 3-9.12

When To Plant Black Eyed Susans

Any seasoned plant parent will tell you to be very careful when choosing the best time for planting because your plant might just end up not growing at all. When to plant Black Eyed Susans, the best time for you to start planting is in spring because the goal is to give them enough time to establish themselves before the weather becomes too extreme.

When Do Black Eyed Susans Bloom?

You should know that although the Black-Eyed Susan is perennial, most varieties are actually short-lived. Luckily, when do Black Eyed Susans bloom you have some time to enjoy your flowers since they open up as soon as early summer and stay on at least till the fall frost.

Best Growing Conditions for Black Eyed Susan

Want to keep your Black-Eyed Susan happy, here are a few tips that you absolutely need for best growing conditions for Black Eyed Susan:

Watering Needs for Black Eyed Susan Plants

What you will appreciate about the Black-Eyed Susan is that it is a pretty drought-tolerant plant, especially when already established. You will only have to provide about an inch of watering in a single week, and they will be fine.

However, when young on watering needs for Black Eyed Susan plants, you will have to water it more regularly, but, regardless, avoid leaving the soil soggy because it will leave room for complications like root rot.

Sunlight Needs for Black-Eyed Susan

How much sunlight does Black-Eyed Susan need each day?13 you may ask.

As you can tell, the plant grows stunning and vibrant flowers, and it goes without saying that it needs a lot of sun to grow. That is why your best bet is to provide 6- 8 hours of full sun in a single day.7

Of course, it can also grow in partial shade, but won’t be as healthy and bright as you want.

Black Eyed Susan Plant Care

If you are often busy or believe that you have a black thumb, you don’t have to worry because the Black-Eyed Susan is known as one of the most low maintenance plants. For Black Eyed Susan plant care, our plant should be fine as long as it receives sunlight and water.

But if you want it to be happy and thriving, there are a few things that you need to provide. Pruning is one of those things.

Graphic that shows the Black Eyed Susan growth rate based on growing zones for black eyed susan in 1 week, 2 - 4 weeks, 1 - 2 months, and 2 months and beyond.

You know that the plant grows really fast, and that is why you will have to cut them back when the season comes to an end. Doing this not only leaves the plant looking way better, but it is also essential for healthy regrowth.

Repotting is also another vital skill that you will need when caring for the Black-Eyed Susan. If you are growing one in a container, you will have to report to a larger space because the flowers absolutely love garden-like environments.

Companion Plants for Growing Black Eyed Susan

As much as the Black-Eyed Susan will look amazing all on its own, you can also take a chance and pair it with other flowers and bushes or companion plants for growing Black Eyed Susan. You can be as creative as you want to make sure that they complement each other, but to help you, here are a few top picks.

  1. Russian sage: The sage tree or sage plant is also popularly grown exclusively for its great looks, and the Russian sage is a perfect one to plant among your Black-Eyed Susans.
  2. Fountaingrass: This is one fuzzy plant that will look incredible alongside the black and yellow colors of your plant.
  3. Purple cornflower:14 How about a plant that looks almost the same as the Black-Eyed Susan except for the color? These ones will easily disguise themselves among your plants.
  4. Lavender: Imagine how well the purple flowers of the lavender will contrast with the colors of the Black-Eyed Susan.
  5. Marigold: If you can’t get enough of yellow flowers, you can add the marigold to your Black-Eyed Susan collection and watch how well shades pop.

Pests of the Black Eyed Susan Vine

Imagine spending so much time caring for your Black Eyed Susan vine only for pests to attack. You want to know the most common pests of the Black Eyed Susan that you need to watch out for.

  1. Aphids: Of course, the aphids will be at the top of this list. They are tiny insects that are popularly known for attacking plants and feeding on the sap from the leaves, leading to many complications.
  2. Spider mites: Other pests that are notorious in the plant world are the spider mites, and they can’t seem to get enough of feeding on the Black-Eyed Susans, leaving them discolored and weak.
  3. Caterpillars: One more pest that you should always watch out for is the caterpillar. They attack at once, feeding on large portions of the plant in no time.

Natural Pest Control for Black Eyed Susan

Pests can be deadly, and the last thing that you want is to lose your Black-Eyed Susan. That is why you will need a Black-Eyed Susan care guide or natural pest control for Black Eyed Susan.15

While many would immediately go for pesticides and other chemical controls, there is a pretty good reason why natural remedies are preferred. They are less invasive and better for the planet.

In the case of large pests like caterpillars, you can actually manually remove them from the plant, one after the other, and as for the tiny insects like aphids, you can opt to hose off the parts, and the insects will fall off. After removal, you can also apply a safe homemade insecticidal soap that you can make in your kitchen.

All you need is dish washing liquid, vegetable or neem oil, and water, and that should do the trick.

Common Diseases of the Black-Eyed Susan

Apart from pests, you should also watch out for the Black-Eyed Susan diseases and be very cautious because some of them are actually lethal and could mean the end of your plant.

  1. Leaf Spots (bacteria and fungi): This serious disease manifests itself by forming dark spots on the lower parts of the leaf and end up defoliating the plant.
  2. Downy Mildew: You will identify this infection when you see whitish and grayish fuzzy growth on the lower parts of the leaf.
  3. Powdery Mildew: This fungal disease is easy to spot because you will see whitish fungal growth that leads to the premature death of the plant leaves.2
  4. Rust: This is another common disease that shows up by forming red spores on the leaves and the stems.

How To Stop Black Eyed Susan Disease

While you should know all about the common Black-Eyed Susan diseases and how to treat them, it is also important to understand how to stop Black Eyed Susan disease. Practicing proper hygiene goes a really long way to make sure that your plants are safe from these diseases in the first place but still, even if they do attack, you need to know how to protect your plants.

Possibly the worst thing that could ever happen to your Black-Eyed Susan is a bacterial or fungal infection. Of course, your very first instinct would be to turn to fungicides, which will probably work, but the last thing you would want is to take any chances, especially when it comes to such fast-spreading diseases.

They have the tendency to spread really fast through water and wind. It goes a long way to explain why it is crucial to immediately sever any parts that are affected and destroy them.

Brace yourself because there are going to be instances where you will have to remove the entire plant to protect the others.

If you get to learn more about the Black-Eyed Susan, you will realize that it is one plant that will effortlessly stand out, no matter what. If it has always been your dream to have a flower garden right in your home, the plant will come in handy, offering you some of the most vivid and attention-grabbing flowers you could ever plant.

It certainly doesn’t miss when it comes to sprucing up your home, and it is all thanks to its signature look, especially with the dark centers and the bright flower petals that come in many shades.

Compliment them with other gorgeous flowers and watch just how incredible your garden will turn out.

Besides, it doesn’t take that much to grow the Black Eyed Susan flowers, maybe a little pruning here and there to make them look even better.

Frequently Asked Questions About Black Eyed Susan

Are Black Eyed Susans Perennials?

So, are Black Eyed Susans perennials? The answer varies, as some types of Black-Eyed Susans are annuals that reseed each year, while other varieties are perennials with a shorter lifespan.

What Does Black Eyed Susan Seeds Look Like?

So, what does Black Eyed Susan seeds look like? The seeds of the Black Eyed Susan are tiny and dark brown or black. You will find them in the flower’s center or the seed head.

Is the Climbing Black Eyed Susan a Real Black-Eyed Susan?

You will likely come across vine plants like the Black Eyed Susan vine or climbing Black Eyed Susan that looks exactly like the real deal. But it is only a matter of resemblance because the vine is not even closely related to the true Black Eyed Susan.

How Can You Use Black Eyed Suzies?

Black Eyed Suzies offer a range of applications, from enhancing home landscaping to attracting pollinators. They can also be cut for indoor decoration or paired with other plants to create a visually striking flower garden.

What Are the Various Plants for Afternoon Sun?

Apart from the Black Eyed Susan, there are so many other flowering plants for afternoon sun and they will also make great companion plants. These include plants like peonies, hydrangea, daylilies, petunias, lantana, lavenders, marigolds, hibiscus, roses,  begonias, fuschia, and caladium.


1Boeckmann, C. (2023, August 1). Black-Eyed Susan Flowers: How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Rudbeckia flowers. The Old Farmer’s Almanac. Retrieved September 5, 2023, from <https://www.almanac.com/plant/black-eyed-susans>

2Donahue, M. Z. (2022, August 18). Insects, Diseases and the Black-Eyed Susan. Weekand. Retrieved September 5, 2023, from <https://www.weekand.com/home-garden/article/insects-diseases-black-eyed-susan-18006433.php>

3Garden Lovers Club. (2023). 11 Different Types of Black-Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia). Garden Lovers Club. Retrieved September 5, 2023, from <https://www.gardenloversclub.com/ornamental/vines/black-eyed-susan/types-of-rudbeckia/>

4Home Stratosphere. (2022, November 29). 43 Different Types of Black-Eyed Susans. Home Stratosphere. Retrieved September 5, 2023, from <https://www.homestratosphere.com/types-of-black-eyed-susans/>

5Iannotti, M. (2022, September 6). How to Grow and Care for Black-Eyed Susan – Flowers. The Spruce. Retrieved September 5, 2023, from <https://www.thespruce.com/choosing-and-growing-black-eyed-susan-1402860>

6Lofgren, K. (2022, July 3). 17 of the Best Black-Eyed Susan Varieties. Gardener’s Path. Retrieved September 5, 2023, from <https://gardenerspath.com/plants/flowers/best-black-eyed-susan-varieties/>

7McAlpine, L. (2023, March 7). How to Plant and Grow Black-Eyed Susan. Better Homes & Gardens. Retrieved September 5, 2023, from <https://www.bhg.com/gardening/plant-dictionary/perennial/black-eyed-susan/>

8Department of Plant Pathology. (2023). Black-Eyed Susan. Ohio State University. Retrieved September 12, 2023, from <https://plantpath.osu.edu/sites/plantpath/files/imce/images/NativePlants/BlackEyedSusan.pdf>

9The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. (2023). ‘Prairie Sun’ Black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckia hirta. Wisconsin Horticulture Division of Extension. Retrieved September 12, 2023, from <https://hort.extension.wisc.edu/articles/prairie-sun-black-eyed-susan-rudbeckia-hirta/>

10Texas A&M University System. (2023). Clasping Coneflower. Aggie Horticulture. Retrieved September 12, 2023, from <https://aggie-hort.tamu.edu/wildseed/claspingconeflower.html>

11Calvert, P. (2023). Rudbeckia hirta: Black Eyed Susan. College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences. Retrieved September 12, 2023, from <https://www.clemson.edu/cafls/demo/plant_profiles/rudbeckia-hirta.html>

12US Department of Agriculture. (2012). USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. USDA. Retrieved September 12, 2023, from <https://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/>

13Miklas, L., & D’Aurora, D. (2023, April 5). Black-Eyed Susan: Beautiful and Beneficial. PennState Extension. Retrieved September 12, 2023, from <https://extension.psu.edu/black-eyed-susan-beautiful-and-beneficial>

14Gilman, E. F. (2015, May 27). Echinacea purpurea Purple Coneflower. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved September 12, 2023, from <https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/FP192>

15US Department of Agriculture. (2023). Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta L. US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved September 12, 2023, from <https://plants.usda.gov/DocumentLibrary/plantguide/pdf/pg_ruhi2.pdf>

16Autumn flowers (10376232316) Photo by Sander van der Wel / Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Flickr <https://www.flickr.com/photos/40803964@N08/10376232316>

17Rudbeckia subtomentosa Henry Eilers kz2 Photo by Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz / Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International ( CC BY-SA 4.0 ). Resized and Changed Format. From Wikimedia Commons <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rudbeckia_subtomentosa_Henry_Eilers_kz2.jpg>

18Rudbeckia “Cherokee Sunset” Photo by Dwight Sipler / CC BY 2.0 DEED | Attribution 2.0 Generic. Resized and Changed Format. From Flickr <https://flic.kr/p/8qLvoa>

19Rudbeckia hirta ‘Cappuccino’-IMG 9293 Photo by C T Johansson / Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Wikimedia Commons <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rudbeckia_hirta_%27Cappuccino%27-IMG_9293.jpg>

20Rudbeckia Hirta Prairie Sun Photo by Parkerdr / Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.5). Resized and Changed Format. From Wikimedia Commons <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rudbeckia_Hirta_Prairie_Sun.jpg>

21Rudbeckia hirta ‘Irish Eyes’ bud Photo by Calimo / Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Wikimedia Commons <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rudbeckia_hirta_%27Irish_Eyes%27_bud.jpg>

22Paul Henjum. 5 September 2020. File:Rudbeckia Cherry Brandy.jpg. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved September 19, 2023, from <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rudbeckia_Cherry_Brandy.jpg>

23Purple Coneflower, Yellow Coneflower, Black-eyed Susan Photo by USFWS Mountain-Prairie / Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Flickr <https://flic.kr/p/kt11Mb>

24Rudbeckia hirta ‘Gloriosa Daisy’ kz01 Photo by Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz / Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Wikimedia Commons <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rudbeckia_hirta_%27Gloriosa_Daisy%27_kz01.jpg>

25Rudbeckia speciosa Viettes Little Suzy 4zz Photo by David J. Stang / Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0). Resized and Changed Format. From Wikimedia Commons <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rudbeckia_speciosa_Viettes_Little_Suzy_4zz.jpg>

26wild, golden, glow, plant, big, petals, rudbeckia, laciniata Photo by Barnes Dr Thomas G, USFWS / Free to use CC0. Resized and Changed Format. PIXNIO. Retrieved September 19, 2023, from <https://pixnio.com/flora-plants/flowers/wildflowers-pictures/wild-golden-glow-plant-with-big-petals-rudbeckia-laciniata>

27Black-eyed Susan in Idaho Photo by Mike Goad (MikeGoad). (2019, January 1) / Pixabay Content License. Cropped and added text, shape, and background elements. Pixabay. Retrieved February 23, 2024, from <https://pixabay.com/photos/black-eyed-susan-in-idaho-black-eyed-3901097/>