The first NFT is believed to have been minted in 2014 and the trend soon caught on, but did you know that the NFT carbon footprint is enormous?
It has been estimated that Bitcoin and Ethereum combined has the twelfth highest energy consumption of all countries in the world.1
What Are NFTs?
A non-fungible token (NFT) is a digital asset that is bought and sold online, often using cryptocurrency. NFTs can be found in the form of music, art, videos, and games and are encoded with the same type of software that cryptocurrencies are built with.
However, there is a significant difference between an NFT and a cryptocurrency like Bitcoin. While cryptocurrencies are fungible, NFTs contain digital signatures that make them inherently non-fungible.
In other words, cryptocurrencies can be exchanged or traded, while NFTs cannot be exchanged or traded.2
Why Do NFTs Have a Carbon Footprint?
Blockchains are systems that record and store information in a way that makes it nearly impossible to hack the information. The first mainstream crypto-collectible trend emerged in 2017, and today, because NFTs rely on a blockchain, the process uses a lot of energy.
Ethereum alone uses around 31 terawatt-hours of electricity on an annual basis, which is estimated to be the same amount that the country of Nigeria uses every year.3
Read More About: What is a Carbon Footprint Explained in 60 Seconds with Images
Why NFTs Are Bad for the Environment?
The debate about whether NFTs are bad for the environment is ongoing, however, the proof is in the NFT carbon footprint.
Most NFTs are minted within the Ethereum network, using a mining process to confirm the transaction. The process is explained as follows:
- Because NFTs use the Ethereum blockchain, a proof-of-work system is required to confirm every new block
- To confirm the new block, computer networks must solve complex problems.
- The network uses energy and receives the gas fees which are generated during the confirmation process
- This, in turn, incentivizes miners to invest in more hardware which then usurps even more power and energy.
- This additional hardware emits greenhouse gases which are detrimental to the environment4
NFT Energy Consumption
It has been estimated that minting an NFT using the Ethereum platform uses more than 260 kilowatt-hours of electricity. This is the same amount of electricity the average American household required over a period of 9 days.5
NFT Energy Consumption Calculator
To calculate the energy consumption of a single NFT transaction, all the components of the process must be considered. For instance, each transaction requires the same amount of energy as the average household uses in a day and a half.
That is minus the following considerations:
- Minting: 142 kWh, 83 KgCO2
- Bids: 41 kWh, 24 KgCO2
- Cancel Bid: 12 kWh, 7kgCO2
- Sale: 87 kWh, 51 KgCO2
- Transfer of ownership: 52 kWh, 30 KgCO2
These figures reveal that the average NFT uses around 340 kWh and produces around 211 KgCO2 in emissions.
Multiply that by at least 8,000 transactions the result is a massive NFT carbon footprint.6
NFT Energy Consumption Comparison
The estimated 340 kilowatt hours of energy used by an NFT, excludes the energy required for additional processes such as designing as well as additional blockchain transactions.25 For this reason, it is difficult to determine the exact amount of NFT energy consumption.
It is estimated however that the fuel burned during an NFT creation to sale cycle would be enough to fuel a three-hour flight.
The biggest culprit behind the kilowatt consumption of the NFT process is the proof-of-work algorithm because a lot of miners are competing at the same time to verify the tokenization of the NFT.
This means that all the complex random algorithms are being solved at the same time, upping the NFT energy consumption. As only one miner can ‘win’ the process, the efforts and the energy consumed by the other miners go to waste.
The below table indicates NFT energy consumption compared to traditional energy consumption:
|NFT Energy Usage: 263,538 kWh|
NFT Emissions: 163,486 KgCO2
|Equivalent to:||An EU resident’s energy consumption over 77 years|
|Combined flights of 1.5 thousand hours|
|Petrol used over 838,000 kilometers (520,000 thousand miles)|
|The kettle boiled 3.5 million times|
|2,500 years of laptop use|
|636 years of computer use|
In less than six months, a single artist’s multi-edition NFTs have created an NFT carbon footprint of 260 MWh and 160 tons of CO2 emissions.7
NFT Carbon Emissions
Over the lifespan of the average NFT, it will produce an estimated 211kg of CO2 into the environment. A tree offsets 60kg of CO2, which means it will require at least 3.52 trees to offset the emissions of an NFT.
In addition to this, secondary NFT sales produce 81kg of CO2, requiring another 1.35 trees to offset the carbon emissions.
Carbon Footprint NFT
The highest carbon footprints of NFTs take place in five different NFT collections. These are indicated as follows:8
|NFT Collection||CO2 Produced||Number of Trees Required to Offset|
|CryptoKitties||240m kg of CO2||4 million trees|
|Sorare||35m kg of CO2||580,337 trees|
|Axie Infinity||27m kg of CO2||461,951 trees|
|Art Blocks||23.1m kg of CO2||385,451 trees|
|The Sandbox||11.6m kg of CO2||192,912 trees|
NFT Carbon Footprint Calculator
To calculate the carbon footprint of a physical sale, the following steps must be included in the calculation:
(The distances used here should be replaced with actual distances when calculating carbon costs).
|Sale Steps||Carbon Cost|
|Point and click sale||0.028 kg of CO2|
|Packaging the product||0.13 kg of CO2|
|Driving to the shipping depot||0.82 kg of CO2|
|Depot sends the package to the local hub 5 miles away||0.08 kg of CO2|
|The package is sent to an airport 10 miles away||0.08 kg of CO2|
|Flying to the main sorting facility||0.096 kg of CO2|
|Sorting and loaded onto another plane||0.05 kg of CO2|
|Flying to the purchaser’s city 1,800 miles away||0.22 kg of CO2|
|Transferring to the local hub||0.11 kg of CO2|
|Delivery||0.69 kg of CO2|
|Total emissions||2.304kg of CO2|
The total emissions of a single physical sale are comparable to driving 5.6 miles in an average US gasoline-powered car.9
NFT Carbon Footprint Comparison
In comparison an NFT sale creates the following:
- 23kg of CO2 per bid
- 51kg of CO2 per sale
- 30kg of CO2 per transfer
This indicates that over its lifecycle, an average NFT will accumulate an NFT carbon footprint of 211kg of CO2 which is the equivalent of driving 513 miles in an average US gasoline-powered car.
While it is not easy to estimate the carbon footprint for each step of an NFT’s life cycle, as can be done with the sale of a physical product, the total figures make it clear that the physical sale of a product as indicated above would have to recur at least 91 times to release the same carbon emissions as a single NFT sale.
At the same time, driving a car for 100 miles releases only 20% of the emissions that the average, single NFT sale does.
Are NFTs Only for Digital Art?
NFTs are not only used for digital art purposes.
There are several sectors that have adopted the use of NFT, including the following:
- Logistics and supply chains
- Branding and ticketing
- Virtual Accessories10
Why NFTs Are Bad for Artists?
While NFTs are immensely popular, the concept is highly conducive to art theft in addition to its high NFT carbon footprint.27 Additionally, there are several other reasons why NFTs are bad for artists:
- Community issues
The modern method of using NFTs to buy and own art has increased the instances of theft, which is causing many users within artist communities to shut down their accounts to protect their assets.
On social media, published works of art may be shared which often leads to sales. On NFT platforms, works of art belong to the purchaser only, but the process is difficult to enforce as screenshots and downloads are not prohibited.
- Environmental Damage
In 2018 it was estimated that during that single year, Ethereum mining consumed as much power as the whole of Iceland during the same period.
- Art is Stolen
There is no process in place to prevent users from tokenizing each other’s work and claiming it as their own.
- Speculative Pricing
Hardworking artists trying to earn a living via NFTs have no guarantee that they will be paid for their efforts. Often the prices offered for art on NFT platforms are far lower than what the artwork would sell for via another sales avenue.
- NFTs can be used anywhere digitally
Once an NFT is purchased, the purchaser can use it anywhere digitally, which means negative connotations can surround the artist if the purchaser connects the artwork to the unpopular opinion written pieces or offensive materials.
- The cost of entry is excessive
To mint, a single NFT can cost up to $600. For collection pieces, the cost can skyrocket to $9,000.11
NFT Art Carbon Footprint
In 2021 Christie’s auction house sold a digital piece of art for $69 million. The digital file that was sold contained 5,000 images. Along with the images came a massive NFT carbon footprint.
A famous NFT named ‘Space Cat’, which features a cat in a rocket on his way to the moon in GIF format has a carbon footprint that is equivalent to an EU resident’s electricity consumption over eight weeks.
The average NFT artwork has a carbon footprint that is slightly slower than that of the Space Cat GIF, but each of them is still comparable to the energy consumption of the average person in the EU over four weeks.12
Environmental NFT Projects
Some NFT platforms are putting in the effort to reduce their NFT carbon footprint and the devastating effect NFT transactions have on the environment.28 The following 4 NFT projects are committed to conservation and sustainability:
ZooLife is the first virtual zoo live streaming around the world. It streams animals online into Spatial where the animals are displayed as they would be in a real-life zoo.
- National Parks NFT
More than 1,800 outdoor enthusiasts form part of the National Parks NFT, where points earned for meets and trivia questions can be used to buy real National Park passes.
- Sunken Blimp
This community-based NFT provides knowledge and tips on how to build innovative and energy-efficient structures that will last into the future.
The goal of Terrafor-Meta is to show off Earth from a bird’s eye view but above the atmosphere.
NFT Carbon Footprint
Along with the above-mentioned environmental NFT projects, several NFT platforms are evolving to provide solutions to their damaging NFT carbon footprint.
The following efforts are being made:
- Carbon offsets
Several NFTs have voiced their intention to start tree-planting initiatives to offset the emissions produced via blockchain. Tree planting carbon offset programs, like one-month carbon offset, is some of the programs they can consider to help reduce the carbon emissions of NFT.
- Green networks
Some crypto networks are aiming to switch to renewable energy, by encouraging NFT miners to establish their facilities in areas that use green energy. Furthermore, solar panels can also be installed to power said facilities.
- Lazy or batch minting
Some NFTs encourage lazily or batch minting, which is a process where minting does not take place until after the NFT is sold.
- PoS Mining
Proof of Stake mining can be used as an alternative to Proof of Work mining which causes high emissions. PoS mining makes use of the staking of crypto coins as opposed to using excessive computing power to mine.13
Creator of NFT Regrets
The first NFT was created by Kevin McCoy and Anil Dash in 2014 and Dash has since expressed regret about how the NFT craze has turned out.
Dash has explained that while the idea behind the NFT process was to help artists gain more control of their artwork and help them sell the artwork faster and via an easier process, it has turned out that going the NFT route has caused more exploitation instead of empowerment.14
Blockchain Carbon Footprint
Bitcoin alone makes up half a percentage point of all electricity usage around the world. That means that Bitcoin’s energy consumption is equivalent to that of the entire country of Sweden. A single Bitcoin transaction produces the same amount of carbon emissions as 330,000 credit card transactions.15
The Carbon Footprint Of Bitcoin
It has been estimated that Bitcoin’s carbon footprint is between 22 and 22.9 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year.30 This is the equivalent of the levels of carbon dioxide emissions produced by Sri Lanka and Jordan during the same time period.16
Bitcoin Carbon Footprint Calculator
To calculate the total carbon emissions produced by bitcoin transactions, the following factors must be included in the calculations:
- Start and end month (time period)
- Total estimated carbon emissions per transaction during this time period
- Estimated emissions per BTC when divided by the total amount of bitcoin that existed at the time.
- The bitcoin that can be offset17
NFT Carbon Footprint
A simpler calculator contains three operating modes:
- Energy footprint
- Carbon footprint
- Climate footprint
In the energy footprint mode, it can be calculated how much energy is required to generate a single dollar through a chosen cryptocurrency platform. In 2021, the energy required to generate $1 in bitcoin was enough to power a household for four hours.
In carbon footprint mode, the CO2 emissions can be calculated for any cryptocurrency, depending on location.
In climate footprint mode, the calculator estimates the damages to the climate in the US currency.18
Ethereum CO2 Emissions per Year
After the merge, it has been confirmed that Ethereum’s annual carbon footprint has been reduced by 99,99% and that the annual CO2 emissions are now under 870, which is less than the combined total of 100 average US households.
Before the merger, Ethereum’s overall energy demand was 23 million megawatt hours per annum, and it is estimated that its energy demand is 2,600 megawatt hours per annum.19
Ethereum Energy Consumption Chart
The following table indicates the worldwide energy consumption between May 2017 and September 2022.20
|Characteristic||Estimated TWh per Year||Minimum TWh per Year|
|Sep 21, 2022||0.01||0|
|Sep 20, 2022||0.01||0|
|Sep 19, 2022||0.01||0|
|Sep 18, 2022||0.01||0|
|Sep 17, 2022||0.01||0|
|Sep 16, 2022||0.01||0|
|Sep 15, 2022||3.4||0.6|
|Sep 14, 2022||77.77||14.62|
|Sep 13, 2022||80.06||15.31|
|Sep 12, 2022||82.78||15.31|
|Sep 02, 2022||78.59||15.77|
|Sep 01, 2022||77.14||15.31|
|Sep 14, 2022||77.77||14.62|
NFT Carbon Footprint
Ethereum Carbon Footprint
Ethereum is now known as a green blockchain after the merge and the switch to proof-of-stake methods. The following graph indicates Ethereum’s expected annual energy consumption compared to other platforms:22
Ethereum Carbon Footprint Calculator
Blockchain carbon footprint calculators can be used to determine the NFT carbon footprint of blockchain technology and to establish the desired offsets.
Some Ethereum carbon footprint calculators are simple and only require the following information:
- NFT address
- Start and end dates
This will calculate the entire carbon footprint of a user on Ethereum between the start and end dates. Some carbon footprint calculators also allow for the calculation of offsetting the carbon emissions as calculated before.23,33
Read More About: Carbon Credit Stocks vs Carbon Capture Stocks (Don’t Fall for It)
There is still a lot of room for improvement when it comes to reducing NFT carbon footprints around the world, and many of these platforms would do well to follow the example of Ethereum to reduce their own NFT carbon footprint.
Frequently Asked Questions About NFT Carbon Footprint
What Is Carbon Credit Exchange?
Carbon credit exchange refers to the process of purchasing credits to make up for the amount of carbon emissions released. This means that when an organization purchases a carbon credit, it can offset one ton of its CO2 emissions.
What Are Carbon Credit Stocks?
Carbon credit stocks have been established to allow organizations to buy or sell emissions permits, supposedly with the goal of lowering CO2 emissions.
What Are Carbon Credit Brokers?
Carbon credit brokers are essentially the middlemen between buyers and sellers in the marketplace.
What Is an NFT Carbon Footprint?
An NFT carbon footprint refers to the amount of CO2 emitted during NFT transactions and mining.
Read More About NFT Carbon Footprint Calculators
Carbon Footprint of Data Centers & Data Storage Per Country (Calculator)
Carbon Footprint of Wood Burning Stoves: The Real Answer (With Graphics)
Carbon Footprint of Tofu: Is Tofu Sustainable? (Busting the Myth)
Carbon Footprint of Timber, Wood, Plywood (Building Materials Footprint)
Carbon Footprint of Wine (Bottle) vs Beer and 13 More Liquor Types
Concrete Carbon Footprint: How the 8% Rule is Harming the Planet
Carbon Footprint of Vegan Diet vs Veg vs Fish (Vegan Footprint Calculator)
Carbon Footprint Assessment (11 Steps): Carbon Footprint Calculator for Business
Travel Carbon Footprint Calculator: Flights, Rental Car, Hotel
Carbon Footprint Driving vs Flying Calculator (Gas vs Electric Car Footprint)
How Many Lights for Christmas Tree? Tree Light Calculator: Find Exact Number
How Many Board Feet in a Tree? Log Board Foot Calculator (Doyle Log Scale)
Carbon Footprint Calculator for Printing: Carbon Footprint of Paper (27 Types)
CO2 Emissions per kWh Calculator: 137 Common Uses (by State, Country)
Carbon Footprint Calculator: How Many Earths If Everyone Lived Like You
How To Find Out CO2 Emissions for My Van: Eco-Friendly Van Carbon Calculator
Carbon Footprint Questionnaire (Digital Worksheet) With Quiz & Customized Tips
Carbon Footprint of Paper vs Plastic vs Glass vs Cardboard (Calculator)
Ford Ranger CO2 Emissions Calculator: Carbon Footprint of All Models
BMW 1 Series CO2 Emissions Calculator (Includes 5 Series, X1, 3 Series, More)
Audi CO2 Emissions Calculator: Carbon Footprint of All Models
Carbon Footprint Chicken vs Beef vs Tofu (Calculator Shows CO2 Per kg)
Carbon Footprint of Eggs: Grade A Vs Free Range Vs Organic
Carbon Footprint of Milk vs Soy Milk vs Almond Milk vs Oat (per Gallon, Kg)
How To Measure Carbon Footprint of a Company (Business Carbon Calculator)
Carbon Footprint of Meat Calculator: Chicken, Beef, Steak, Bison, Turkey
Dog Carbon Footprint Calculator: By Dog Breed, Size, Weight (List)
Carbon Footprint of Beef Calculator: By Pound, Type, Steak, Burger, Grass Fed
Carbon Footprint of a Single Ethereum NFT Transaction (vs Other NFTs, Crypto)
How To Calculate Carbon Footprint Manually: How Carbon Calculators Work
Carbon Footprint of Avocado vs 73 Other Foods (Avocado Offset Calculator)
Truck CO2 Emissions Per Km Calculator: Find Semi Truck Carbon Footprint
NFT Carbon Footprint Calculator: Comparison of NFT Carbon Emissions
How Much Carbon Does a Tree Capture (24 Species + Calculator)
Air Freight vs Sea Freight Carbon Footprint (The Real Numbers in 2023)
Email Carbon Footprint vs. Paper Letter by Mail (And the True Price of SPAM)
2023 Plastic Carbon Footprint: Official Emissions Numbers + Calculator
Carbon Footprint Calculation Explained in 7 Simple Steps (Try This Now)
What is an Ecological Footprint? (Don’t Make This #1 Common Mistake)
Carbon Emissions Calculator: Includes a Free Report With Carbon Offsets
How to Calculate Ecological Footprint in 2 Easy Steps (Find Yours Now)
Individual Carbon Footprint Calculator: Your Eco Footprint in 60 Seconds
Carbon Footprint Calculator for Students: Free for Students and Teachers
Carbon Offset Car Rental Calculator: Get Your Precise Offset for any Rental Company
Boat and Yacht Carbon Footprint Calculator: Erase Your Emissions and Go Climate Neutral
Car Carbon Footprint Calculator: Choose Your Car’s Year, Make, and Model
Truck Carbon Footprint Calculator: Choose Your Pickup’s Year, Make, and Model
Carbon Footprint Calculator for Spending & Shopping Habits
Calculate Emissions by Country: View Carbon Footprint Data Around the World
Flight Carbon Calculator: Emissions by Airline, Origin and Destination Airports
Terrapass Carbon Calculator Could Be Better: Here’s How in 5 Steps
How Nature.org Can Improve their Carbon Calculator Results
Tracking Your Ecological Impact with the Earthday.org Footprint Calculator
Food Carbon Footprint Calculator: Find Your Diet Emissions & Eat Green
3 Things Missing in EPA’s Carbon Footprint Calculator
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Calculator: Review Your Environmental Impact
What is Ecological Footprint vs Carbon Footprint? How to Calculate Both
Household Carbon Calculator or Ecological Footprint Calculator? Here’s How to Pick
Carbon (CO2) Counter for Your Car & Lifestyle Choices
EPA Kids Calculator? Try This Eco Footprint Calculator for Children Instead
1Alex Hughes. (2022, March 8). Can NFTs solve their massive carbon footprint problem? Science Focus. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.sciencefocus.com/future-technology/can-nfts-solve-their-massive-carbon-footprint-problem/>
2Robyn Conti & John Schmidt. (2022, April 8). What Is An NFT? Non-Fungible Tokens Explained. Forbes. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.forbes.com/advisor/investing/cryptocurrency/nft-non-fungible-token/>
3Peter Howson. (2021, April 1). NFTs: why digital art has such a massive carbon footprint. The Conversation. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://theconversation.com/nfts-why-digital-art-has-such-a-massive-carbon-footprint-158077>
4Kimberlee Leonard. (2022, June 27). NFTs, Their Environmental Impact, & The Future. Seeking Alpha. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://seekingalpha.com/article/4488450-nfts-environmental-impact>
5ALLIE GRACE GARNETT. (2022, August 8). NFTs and the Environment. Investopedia. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.investopedia.com/nfts-and-the-environment-5220221#>
6Andy Storey . (2022, January 11). How Much Energy does it Take to Make an NFT? Poster Grind. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://postergrind.com/how-much-energy-does-it-take-to-make-an-nft/>
7AlexWGomezz. (n.d.). How Much Energy Do NFTs Use? Cyber Scrilla. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://cyberscrilla.com/how-much-energy-do-nfts-use/>
8NFT Club. (n.d.). How bad for the environment are NFTs? NFT Club. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://nftclub.com/eco-impact-of-nfts/>
9Erin Davis. (2022, July 20). The carbon footprint of creating and selling an NFT artwork. Quartz. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://qz.com/1987590/the-carbon-footprint-of-creating-and-selling-an-nft-artwork/>
10David Bailey. (2022, January 5). Are NFTs only about digital art? Actually, no. Supplain. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://supplain.io/news/nft-use-cases-digital-art>
11Andy Storey. (2022, May 7). 9 Reasons Why NFTs Are Bad For Artists. Poster Grind. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://postergrind.com/9-reasons-why-nfts-are-bad-for-artists/>
12JUSTINE CALMA. (2021, March 15). The climate controversy swirling around NFTs. The Verge. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.theverge.com/2021/3/15/22328203/nft-cryptoart-ethereum-blockchain-climate-change>
13Spatial. (2022, April 22). 4 NFT Projects with a Positive Environmental Impact. Spatial. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://spatial.io/blog/4-nft-projects-with-a-positive-environmental-impact>
14Anil Dash. (2021, April 2). NFTs Weren’t Supposed to End Like This. The Atlantic. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2021/04/nfts-werent-supposed-end-like/618488/>
15Courtney Lindwall . (2022, February 3). Crypto Has a Climate Problem. NRDC. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.nrdc.org/stories/crypto-has-climate-problem>
16Reuters. (2021, May 13). Factbox: How big is Bitcoin’s carbon footprint? Reuters. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.reuters.com/technology/how-big-is-bitcoins-carbon-footprint-2021-05-13/>
17Netpositive.Money. (n.d.). Bitcoin CO2 Footprint Calculator. Netpositive.Money. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://netpositive.money/calculator/>
18Rahul Dhari & Arturo Barrantes. (2022, April 6). Cryptocurrency Footprint Calculator. Omni Calculator. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.omnicalculator.com/ecology/cryptocurrency-footprint>
19The News Crypto. (2022, September 17). Ethereum Energy Usage, the Carbon Footprint Down to 99.99%. Investing.com. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://in.investing.com/news/ethereum-energy-usage-the-carbon-footprint-down-to-9999-3347129#>
20Raynor de Best. (2022, September 22). Ethereum energy consumption worldwide from May 2017 to September 22, 2022. Statistica. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://www.statista.com/statistics/1265897/worldwide-ethereum-energy-consumption/>
21Next Billion. (2022, September 21). Press Release: Ethereum Blockchain Eliminates 99.99% of its Carbon Footprint Overnight After a Successful Merge According to New Report. Next Billion. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://nextbillion.net/news/ethereum-blockchain-eliminates-99-99-of-its-carbon-footprint-overnight-after-a-successful-merge-according-to-new-report/>
22Ethereum.org. (2022, September 15). Ethereum energy consumption. Ethereum.org. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://ethereum.org/en/energy-consumption/>
23Hackernoon. (2021, July 31). Here’s A Calculator To Calculate The Carbon Footprint of Any Ethereum Wallet Or Smart Contract. Hackernoon. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from <https://hackernoon.com/heres-a-calculator-to-calculate-the-carbon-footprint-of-any-ethereum-wallet-or-smart-contract-7z5c37ze>
24Conner-Simons, A. (2021, March 22). NFTs, explained. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://www.csail.mit.edu/news/nfts-explained>
25Congressional Research Service. (2022, July 20). Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R47189>
26Washington University in St. Louis & AAMNA. (2021, April 28). Non-Fungible Tokens and Climate. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://sustainability.wustl.edu/non-fungible-tokens-and-climate/>
27US Government Accountability Office. (2022, June 14). Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-22-105990>
28University of Colorado Environmental Center & Smith, N. (2022, February 7). Crypto Woes: Cryptocurrency and Climate Change, From Coal to E-Waste. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://www.colorado.edu/ecenter/2022/02/07/crypto-woes-cryptocurrency-and-climate-change-coal-e-waste>
29National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2019, September 25). Blockchain. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://www.nist.gov/blockchain>
30MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Stoll, C., Klaaßen, L., & Gallersdörfer, U. (2018, December). The Carbon Footprint of Bitcoin. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://ceepr.mit.edu/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/2018-018.pdf>
31Kiffer, L., Salman, A., Levin, D., Mislove, A., Nita-Rotaru, C., & Northeastern University. (2022). Under the Hood of the Ethereum Gossip Protocol. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/amislove/publications/Ethereum-FC.pdf>
32Columbia Climate School & Cho, R. (2021, September 20). Bitcoin’s Impacts on Climate and the Environment. Retrieved october 18, 2022, from <https://news.climate.columbia.edu/2021/09/20/bitcoins-impacts-on-climate-and-the-environment/>
33US Environmental Protection Agency. (2016). Carbon Footprint Calculator. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from <https://www3.epa.gov/carbon-footprint-calculator/>
34NFT Blockchain by Tumisu, Crypto Miner by fszlai. Pixabay. Retrieved from <https://pixabay.com/>
35BoredApe NFT by Niranjan _ Photographs, Blockchain Technology by Hitesh Choudhary, Ethereum NFT by Kanchanara, NFT Logo by Mo. Unsplash. Retrieved from <https://unsplash.com/>