The carbon footprint driving vs flying subject is fascinating when considering the sheer amount of valuable information required to calculate accurate CO2 emissions figures.
But are flights really worse than driving?
It all depends on the flight and the type of vehicle being compared. Since both use a form of combustion engine (unless you’re measuring gas vs electric car footprints), the measurements can be compared.
The data required when using an online carbon footprint driving vs flying calculator includes all relevant information about several modes of aviation and road vehicles, including planes, helicopters, cars, trucks, and trains.
Keep reading to learn more.
Is Flying More Efficient Than Driving?
The main question asked when assessing the emissions of different modes of transport is, is flying more efficient than driving?
The answer to this question requires comparing greenhouse gas emissions, while considering factors such as driving with others, flying in moderation, as well as premium classes and private jets.
The following factors also come into play:
- Flight tickets are less affected by rising fuel prices, compared to trips taken with a gasoline-powered car.
- In some instances, a trip via car is more efficient when driving a short distance.
Is Flying Better Than Driving for the Environment?
So then, when answering the question, is flying better than driving for the environment, the below statistics apply:
Seat-spinning research and grounding the numbers have revealed wider factors and enduring truths when it comes to comparing driving and flying:
- More than 4 billion passengers fly to several destinations annually, with most of these flights being long-distance. Consider the following: 133 grams of carbon emissions are emitted per passenger per kilometer during local flights, and this alone adds up to more than 1 billion tons of carbon emissions every single year.
- In addition to this, half of the environmental impact of flying, and airplane pollution, comes from non-CO2 emissions, such as contrails. Contrails consist of condensed water vapor that is released as a plane’s altitude changes (high altitudes). This water vapor freezes instantly, forming ice crystals. In turn, these icy crystals form cirrus clouds, which trap heat and cause warming effects.
- Furthermore, planes produce NOx which contributes to climate change, because of a buildup of ozone. This process is called a net warming effect:
Whenever alternatives to driving or flying are not available, it is best to fly economy class. This is because business class produces up to 3x more carbon emissions than economy class. Additionally, flying first class emits up to 3x more emissions than business class.
When it comes to short flights vs. long flights, short trips are always better for the environment, and wherever alternatives to driving or flying are available, that route should be taken.
Fortunately, using tree planting offsetting carbon emissions like an international flying carbon offset, and further reducing your carbon footprint is possible via reforestation projects or zero-carbon energy purchases. Also, sustainable aviation fuel is another option in the fight against high plane travel carbon emissions.
Cars, on the other hand, along with other road vehicles are responsible for 74.5% of emissions in the transportation sector. Driving with others, or carpooling is an effective way to reduce carbon emissions during road journeys. Wherever possible, public transport should be utilized.
Choosing to drive an electric car also has a positive effect on car pollution levels, as it has been proven that electric cars produce far fewer emissions over their entire lifespan, compared to gasoline-powered vehicles.
However, it must be noted that there are some problems with electric cars, including that fossil fuels are still used in the manufacturing of electric car batteries. Fortunately, ongoing work is being done when it comes to cleaning up car standards.1
Flying vs Driving Cost
During calculations to determine which is greener, the flying vs driving cost factors must also be considered:
|Flying costs||Driving costs|
|Flight tickets||Gas costs|
|Extra charges include bag fees, pet fees, and selected seat fees.||Wear and tear costs|
|Rental car cost, with gas and parking costs counting as extras.||Parking and toll gate costs|
|Public transit costs||Extra gas costs during heavy traffic|
|Membership access costs||Food stop costs2|
Carbon Footprint Driving vs Flying
The carbon footprint driving vs flying calculations also includes several other factors such as the carbon footprint of flying per mile, plane CO2 emissions per mile, and plane CO2 emissions per km.
Carbon Footprint of Flying per Mile
It is estimated that the carbon footprint of flying per mile per passenger is 0.40 pounds of CO2 per mile per passenger.
This is based on the assumption that the plane is a Boeing 737-400.
Plane CO2 Emissions per Mile
A plane’s CO2 emissions per mile are estimated to be just over 53 pounds of CO2 per mile.
Plane CO2 Emissions per Km
A plane’s CO2 emissions per km are estimated to be 115 g of CO2 per km.
Flying vs Driving Carbon Footprint
The flying vs driving carbon footprint then shows that a fuel-efficient car (up to 30 miles per gallon) generally produces fewer GHG emissions compared to flying.
For example, traveling 300 miles between Philadelphia and Boston by car would generate around 104 kg of CO2 (regardless of how many passengers are in the vehicle), whereas flying the same distance by jet would produce around 184 kg of CO2 per passenger.3
CO2 Emissions by Aircraft Type
|Aircraft Type||Share of CO2 Emissions|
The aircraft fleets with the lowest CO2 emissions per passenger per mile are as follows:
|Aircraft Fleets||CO2 Emissions per Passenger per Mile (in grams)|
|Jackson Square Aviation||126 grams of CO2e per passenger per mile|
|AMCK Aviation||128 grams of CO2e per passenger per mile|
|SMBC Aviation Capital||130 grams of CO2e per passenger per mile|
|Air Lease Corporation||131 grams of CO2e per passenger per mile|
|Goshawk Aviation Limited||133 grams of CO2e per passenger per mile|
Aircraft Fuel Efficiency Comparison
In addition to the comparison of CO2 emissions by aircraft type and aircraft fleet, an aircraft fuel efficiency comparison also factors into calculating plane emissions.
|Model of Plane||Passengers per plane||Max fuel capacity in gallons||Maximum range in miles||Fuel efficiency (gallons/miles)|
|Model of plane: 737-600||Passengers per plane: 110||Max fuel capacity: 6,875||Maximum range: 3,510||Fuel efficiency: 1.96|
|Model of plane: 737-700||Passengers per plane: 126||Max fuel capacity: 6,875||Maximum range: 3,872||Fuel efficiency: 1.78|
|Model of plane: 737-700ER||Passengers per plane: 76||Max fuel capacity: 6,875||Maximum range: 6,341||Fuel efficiency: 1.08|
|Model of plane: 737-700C||Passengers per plane: 120||Max fuel capacity: 6,875||Maximum range: 3,688||Fuel efficiency: 1.86|
|Model of plane: 737-800||Passengers per plane: 162||Max fuel capacity: 6,875||Maximum range: 3,521||Fuel efficiency: 1.95|
|Model of plane: 737-900ER||Passengers per plane: 180||Max fuel capacity: 7,837||Maximum range: 3,682||Fuel efficiency: 2.13|
|Model of plane: 747-8||Passengers per plane: 467||Max fuel capacity: 64,225||Maximum range: 9,206||Fuel efficiency: 6.98|
|Model of plane: 747-400||Passengers per plane: 524||Max fuel capacity: 57,285||Maximum range: 8,355||Fuel efficiency: 6.86|
|Model of plane: 747-400ER||Passengers per plane: 524||Max fuel capacity: 63,705||Maximum range: 8,826||Fuel efficiency: 7.22|
|Model of plane: 747-100||Passengers per plane: 452||Max fuel capacity: 48,445||Maximum range: 7,020||Fuel efficiency: 6.90|
|Model of plane: 747-200||Passengers per plane: 452||Max fuel capacity: 52,410||Maximum range: 9,091||Fuel efficiency: 5.76|
|Model of plane: 747-300||Passengers per plane: 496||Max fuel capacity: 52,410||Maximum range: 8,861||Fuel efficiency: 5.91|
|Model of plane: 757-200||Passengers per plane: 200||Max fuel capacity: 11,489||Maximum range: 4,488||Fuel efficiency: 2.56|
|Model of plane: 757-300||Passengers per plane: 243||Max fuel capacity: 11,466||Maximum range: 3,907||Fuel efficiency: 2.93|
|Model of plane: 767-200ER||Passengers per plane: 224||Max fuel capacity: 23,980||Maximum range: 7,584||Fuel efficiency: 3.16|
|Model of plane: 767-300ER||Passengers per plane: 269||Max fuel capacity: 23,980||Maximum range: 6,876||Fuel efficiency: 3.49|
|Model of plane: 767-400ER||Passengers per plane: 304||Max fuel capacity: 23,980||Maximum range: 6,473||Fuel efficiency: 3.70|
|Model of plane: 777-200||Passengers per plane: 400||Max fuel capacity: 31,000||Maximum range: 6,024||Fuel efficiency: 5.15|
|Model of plane: 777-200ER||Passengers per plane: 400||Max fuel capacity: 45,200||Maximum range: 8,861||Fuel efficiency: 5.10|
|Model of plane: 777-200LR||Passengers per plane: 301||Max fuel capacity: 47,890||Maximum range: 10,875||Fuel efficiency: 4.40|
|Model of plane: 777-300||Passengers per plane: 451||Max fuel capacity: 45,200||Maximum range: 6,922||Fuel efficiency: 6.53|
|Model of plane: 777-300ER||Passengers per plane: 365||Max fuel capacity: 47,890||Maximum range: 9,126||Fuel efficiency: 5.25|
Private Jet Emissions vs Car
The carbon footprint driving vs flying calculations also includes private jet emissions vs car emissions.
Private jet CO2 emissions are soaring because of constantly increasing demand. Just one year ago, private jet travel returned to pre-Covid levels.
In addition to this, it is estimated that a single private jet can produce more than 2 tons of CO2 in just one hour. In comparison, the average resident in the EU is responsible for 8.2 tons of CO2 equivalent over a whole year.
It has been found that private jets are up to 14 times more polluting than commercial planes, and up to 50 times more polluting than alternative modes of transport such as trains.
To try and ensure a lesser impact by private jets in the future, plans are in place to only permit the use of electric aircraft powered by renewable hydrogen and energy for private jet trips shorter than 1,000 kilometers in Europe.6
Driving vs Flying Carbon Footprint
The driving vs flying carbon footprint is generally calculated using a variety of online carbon calculators. These calculators include a carbon footprint car calculator and a carbon footprint flight calculator.
Carbon Footprint Car Calculator
A carbon footprint car calculator can convert entered data relating to gasoline, vehicles, and kWh hours. To convert energy data, the following inputs are required:
- Select data to convert: energy data
- Enter unit data relating to either:
- Gasoline (gallons)
- Passenger vehicles (gasoline-powered)
- kWh hours (avoided)
- kWh hours (usage)
- Natural gas (MCF)
- Natural gas (Therms)
To convert emissions data, the following inputs are required:
- Entering relevant data for one or more gas emissions, including
- CO2 in metric tons
- Carbon in metric tons
- CH4 in metric tons
- N2O in metric tons
- Hydrofluorocarbon in metric tons
- Perfluorocarbon gasses in metric tons
- Sulfur Hexafluoride in metric tons
The results of these calculations after conversion, are presented in equivalencies.7
Carbon Footprint Flight Calculator
A carbon footprint flight calculator requires the following steps:
- Estimated fuel burn per aircraft
- Estimated fuel burn per passenger which is based on the freight/passenger factor
- Calculation of occupied seats, with the assumption that all seats are economic. The calculation for this is: Seat Occupied = Total of All Seats Load Factor
- Calculation of CO2 emissions per passenger = (Fuel burn per passenger / Seat occupied)
When flights are longer than 3,000 kilometers, the following applies to the CO2 emissions per flight calculator: Carbon emissions per passenger in a premium seat equals twice the carbon emissions per passenger in an economy seat.8
The above calculation applies to average emissions per flight, meaning all factors should be considered for different aircraft types and the mileage traveled when calculating CO2 emissions.
Carbon Footprint Driving vs Flying Calculator
A carbon footprint driving vs flying calculator, or simply travel emissions calculator, uses a simple methodology:
The distance of a journey is entered, and then the CO2 emissions are calculated in kilograms per the mode of transport. For instance, if the journey is 100 kilometers, the CO2 emissions would be estimated as follows:
|Transport Mode||CO2 Emissions Per 100 km (in kg)|
|Plane||25kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Petrol-powered car||22kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Diesel-powered car||21kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Ethanol-powered car||7 kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Gas-powered car||21 kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Hybrid car||13 kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|EV||7 kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Bus||13 kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Train||3 kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Subway||1 kg of CO2e per 100 km|
|Boat||14 kg of CO2e per 100 km9|
Helicopter Carbon Footprint
A driving vs flying carbon calculator doesn’t only work with the input of traditional long-distance aircraft information, but can also compare a helicopter carbon footprint to that of a car carbon footprint or plane carbon footprint.
It is estimated that over the past 5 decades, the CO2 emissions produced by helicopters have been reduced by at least 50% after a series of engine improvements were made. These improvements provide at least three times more power to the engine, but with 50% fewer emissions.
Sustainable aviation fuel is also in the pipeline as another solution to reducing CO2 emissions even further.10
Carbon Footprint Driving vs Flying
Furthermore, the carbon footprint driving vs flying subject expands to include electric car carbon footprint, as well as the carbon footprint of driving to work.
It should be noted that flying vs driving safety should also be included when looking at pros and cons of driving vs flying, even though this is not included in a fly or drive carbon calculator.
Electric Car Carbon Footprint
When comparing the carbon footprint of electric cars vs gasoline, the electric car carbon footprint is estimated as follows:
|Make And Model||Type of Vehicle||Fuel Efficiency|
(Liter per 100 km)
(GHG in grams per km)
|Make and model: 2018 Toyota Prius Eco 1.8 L||Type of vehicle: HEV||Fuel efficiency: 4.20 L/100km||96.2 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Toyota Camry Hybrid LE 2.5 L||Type of vehicle: HEV||Fuel efficiency: 4.52 L/100km||103.6 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: Hyundai Ioniq Electric Automatic A2||Type of vehicle: BEV||Fuel efficiency: 15.53 kWh/100 km||139.8 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Toyota Prius Prime||Type of vehicle: PHEV||Fuel efficiency: 15.53 kWh/100 km||139.8 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Honda Civic 1.5 L||Type of vehicle: ICE||Fuel efficiency: 6.53 L/100 km||149.6 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Chevrolet Bolt||Type of vehicle: BEV||Fuel efficiency: 17.40 kWh/100 km||156.6 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5 L||Type of vehicle: ICE||Fuel efficiency: 6.92 L/100 km||158.4 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Toyota Corolla LE Eco 1.8 L||Type of vehicle: ICE||Fuel efficiency: 6.92 L/100 km||158.4 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Honda Accord 1.5 L||Type of vehicle: ICE||Fuel efficiency: 7.13 L/100 km||163.2 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Nissan Leaf||Type of vehicle: BEV||Fuel efficiency: 18.64 kWh/100 km||167.8 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Chevrolet Volt||Type of vehicle: PHEV||Fuel efficiency: 19.26 kWh/100 km||173.4 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Kia Soul Electric||Type of vehicle: BEV||Fuel efficiency: 19.26 kWh/100 km||173.4 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Honda CR-V FWD 1.5 L||Type of vehicle: ICE||Fuel efficiency: 7.84 L/100 km||179.5 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Tesla Model S 75D||Type of vehicle: BEV||Fuel efficiency: 20.51 kWh/100 km||184.5 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: Toyota Highlander Hybrid 4WD LE Plus||Type of vehicle: HEV||Fuel efficiency: 8.11 L/100 km||185.7 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2017 Ford C-MAX Energi Plug-In Hybrid 2.0 L||Type of vehicle: PHEV||Fuel efficiency: 21.75 kWh/100 km||195.7 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|Make and model: 2018 Tesla Model X 75D Automatic||Type of vehicle: BEV||Fuel efficiency: 22.37 kWh/100 km||201.3 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|2018 Ford F150 Pickup 4WD 2.7L||Type of vehicle: ICE||Fuel efficiency: 11.20 L/100 km||156.5 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|2018 Dodge Grand Caravan 3.6 L||Type of vehicle: ICE||Fuel efficiency: 11.7 L/100 km||269.3 grams of GHG emissions per km|
|2018 Volvo XC90 AWD 2.0 L||Type of vehicle: PHEV||Fuel efficiency: 31.07 kWh/100 km||279.6 grams of GHG emissions per km|
The above data is based on emissions in the Alberta province in Canada. Emissions differ between provinces depending on whether vehicles are grid-charged or renewable-energy charged.11
Carbon Footprint Driving To Work
When calculating car CO2 emissions per km, the carbon footprint driving to work should be considered as well as an overall commute carbon footprint.
Calculating a carbon footprint driving to work depends on how fuel-efficient the vehicle is and how many miles are driven to and from work per year.
Individual Carbon Footprint Calculator
An individual carbon footprint calculator can be utilized for this purpose and can also be used to calculate different car models’ carbon footprint, including Ford Ranger CO2 emissions and BMW 1 Series CO2 emissions.
Audi has also designed an online Audi CO2 emissions calculator specifically for its drivers to calculate their personal vehicle carbon footprint.
Commute Carbon Footprint Calculator
Companies who are keen to decrease various carbon footprints as it relates to business activities, often make use of a commute carbon footprint calculator.
This type of calculator requires the following inputs:
- Number of employees
- Number of employees that work from home
- Total miles traveled per month by car, bus, and rail
The calculator then calculates the commute carbon footprint in metric tons of CO2e.12
Shipping Carbon Footprint
The carbon footprint driving vs flying also branches off into shipping carbon footprint, which includes air freight vs sea freight carbon footprint. Calculators are used to determine boat vs plane emissions as it relates to shipping travel.
Air Freight vs Sea Freight Carbon Footprint
The air freight vs sea freight carbon footprint, when calculated purely on carbon footprint alone, reveals that air freight over long distances generates up to 47 times the carbon emissions of ocean freight per ton-mile.
This means that planes produce 500g of CO2 per metric ton of freight per kilometer, while large container ships only emit up to 40g of CO2 per kilometer.
But there are several more factors to consider.
Related Reading: Ocean Freight vs Air Freight Carbon Footprint for Large Items: Which Is the Most Suitable?
Are Boats Better for the Environment Than Planes?
These factors include the question, are boats better for the environment than planes? The simple answer is yes, because:
- CO2 emissions are drastically reduced using sea freight options.
- CO2 emissions produced by airplanes are released directly into the atmosphere.
However, it must be noted that boats, ships, and cruise lines release emissions directly into the ocean, which worsens ocean acidification.13
The environmental impact of cruise ship vs flying in a jet is particularly harsh on the cruise ship side of things, considering that a passenger on a cruise ship that travels 2,000 km would be responsible for 500 kg of CO2 emissions over a period of five days. That is assuming the most efficient cruise liner is booked.
In comparison, should that same passenger travel by jet, they would be responsible for the emission of around 160 kg of CO2 emissions. Factoring in hotel emissions, the total CO2 emissions would be 235 kg.14
Even worse, older sea freighters release on average up to five times more CO2 emissions than newer models.
Are Trains Better for the Environment Than Planes?
Another question then follows: Are trains better for the environment than planes? The short answer here is, yes, in general, traveling by train is more environmentally friendly than traveling by plane.
It should be noted however that the longer the train journey, the more emissions it produces. A train carbon footprint calculator comes in handy when calculating CO2 emissions for different mileages.
The below example highlights emissions per passenger per journey.
|Type of Transport||Journey From London to Madrid (emissions in kg)|
|Plane||118 kg of CO2 emissions / +147 kg non CO2 emissions|
|Train||43 kg of CO2 emissions|
|Train journey (500 km between Paris and Bordeaux)||4.4 kg of CO2 emissions|
|Train journey (465 km between Gdansk and Katowice)||61.8 kg of CO2 emissions15|
Travel Carbon Footprint Calculator
All the above statistics and figures then beg the question, if seeing the world helps ruin it, should we stay home?
In an ideal world, staying and working from home all the time would be great for the planet, but realistically speaking this isn’t possible.
Travel is essential for business and pleasure, but to lessen the impact of traveling and make changes where necessary, a travel carbon footprint calculator is an unmissable part of calculating the carbon footprint driving vs flying.
Frequently Asked Questions About Carbon Footprint Driving Vs Flying
What Is the Carbon Footprint Driving Vs Flying?
Driving a car for 11,556 miles every year is equal to the GHG emissions released while powering an average household for nine months, or charging a mobile phone around 600,000 times.
What Are the CO2 Emissions Per Flight Per Person
A passenger on a Boeing 737-400 is generally responsible for 115 grams of CO2 emissions per kilometer.
What Are the Pros and Cons of Driving Vs Flying?
The pros of driving include not having to book ahead of time, or being limited to certain departure dates. Driving doesn’t come with cancellation risks either. However, flying comes with its own pros including being able to multitask while on the plane and taking breaks from sitting more often. The cons are that both options include carbon emissions, especially during long journeys.
What Is Ferry vs Flying Environment?
The ferry vs flying environmental impact is described as follows: Almost all types of ferries rely on fossil fuels, and they generate up to double the emissions of a passenger plane (per passenger per km). In addition to this, a ferry traveling at high speed generates even more emissions compared to a ‘cruising’ ferry.
When Does It Make Sense To Fly vs Drive?
When the journey is short and the emissions are proven to be less compared to driving the same distance, it makes better sense to fly instead of drive.
Are Trains Better for the Environment Than Cars?
In general, trains are better for the environment than cars, as rail transport is known to have some of the lowest emissions per km, and unit of cargo transported.
How To Find Out CO2 Emissions for My Van?
A CO2 emissions calculator can be used to calculate CO2 emissions for a van or any vehicle for that matter. Some van models have this information included in the relevant brochure.
How Much CO2 Does a 747 Produce?
A Boeing 747-400 generally produces around 11.6 metric tons of CO2.
Are Planes More Efficient Than Trains?
It has been estimated that train travel is around 12 times more energy efficient than traveling by plane.
What Are the Zero Emission Cars?
Zero emissions cars are divided into two categories: battery electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles.
What Is the Carbon Footprint of Electric Cars vs Gasoline?
A lot of individuals are asking about the carbon footprint of electric cars vs gasoline. In general, electric cars are greener than gasoline-powered cars when comparing CO2 footprints. However, it must be noted that while electric cars do not produce tailpipe emissions, their batteries are responsible for high emissions.
What Is the Carbon Footprint Calculation?
A personal carbon footprint calculation is dependent on the following inputs:
- Multiplying monthly electricity bill by 105
- Multiplying monthly gas bill by 105
- Multiplying monthly oil bill by 113
- Multiplying annual mileage by .79 (car)
- Multiplying annual number of flights by 1,100 (these flights should be four hours or less)
- Multiplying annual number of flights by 4,400 (these flights should be four hours or more)
- Add 184 if no newspapers are recycled.
- Add 166 if no aluminum and tin are recycled.
- Add the total of step one and step eight together to calculate the carbon footprint.
What Is the Carbon Footprint of Space Travel?
The carbon footprint of space travel is estimated to be astronomical: A single trip into space will likely release an entire lifetime’s worth of CO2 emissions.
Read More About Carbon Footprint Driving Vs Flying
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2French, S., Geller, E., & Kemmis, S. (2022, August 31). Flying vs. Driving: How to Calculate the Costs. NerdWallet. Retrieved from <https://www.nerdwallet.com/article/travel/flying-vs-driving#driving-vs.-flying-costs>
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7Transport & Environment. (2021, May 27). Private jets: can the super-rich supercharge zero-emission aviation? Transport & Environment. Retrieved from <https://www.transportenvironment.org/discover/private-jets-can-the-super-rich-supercharge-zero-emission-aviation/>
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9GoClimate. (n.d.). Travel Emissions Calculator. GoClimate. Retrieved November 22, 2022, from <https://www.goclimate.com/travel-calculator>
10Airbus. (n.d.). Decarbonising helicopters. Airbus. Retrieved from <https://www.airbus.com/en/sustainability/environment/climate-change/decarbonisation/decarbonising-helicopters>
11Régie de l’énergie du Canada. (2022, June 29). Market Snapshot: How much CO2 do electric vehicles, hybrids and gasoline vehicles emit? Régie de l’énergie du Canada. Retrieved from <https://www.cer-rec.gc.ca/en/data-analysis/energy-markets/market-snapshots/2018/market-snapshot-how-much-co2-do-electric-vehicles-hybrids-gasoline-vehicles-emit.html>
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13Baxter, K. (2022, April 6). Air Freight vs Ocean Freight Carbon Footprint & Environmental Impact. Blog. Retrieved from <https://blog.intekfreight-logistics.com/air-freight-vs-ocean-freight-carbon-footprint-environmental-impact>
14Comer, B. (2022, May 16). What if I told you cruising is worse for the climate than flying? International Council on Clean Transportation. Retrieved from <https://theicct.org/marine-cruising-flying-may22/>
15Sustainable Conferencing Initiative. (2021, October 21). Why you should choose a train journey instead of a flight – Sustainable Conferencing Initiative. Sustainable Conferencing Initiative. Retrieved from <https://sustainability.biologists.com/blog/why-you-should-choose-a-train-journey-instead-of-a-flight/>
16Photo by Hyundai Motor Group. Unsplash. Retrieved from <https://unsplash.com/photos/Ax5hexSdvCg>
17Photo by Yiran Ding. Unsplash. Retrieved from <https://unsplash.com/photos/mkUWjz9pm98>